July 9, 2024 Longchang Chemical

What are the downstream fine chemical routes for C5?

The C5 industry is a niche track, and currently only naphtha cracking by-produces C5 components, which is the most basic source of C5 products. Because of the limited source on the supply side, the development scale of C5 industry is obviously restricted, and the overall industrial scale of C5 industry within China is less than ten million tons, which on one hand leads to the relatively moderate competitive environment of the industry, and on the other hand also delays the process of industrial fine development to a large extent.

What are the directions of fine chemical development in C5 industry? Which directions are worthy of further research and discussion?

First, the basic introduction of C5

C5 in the industry is a general term, theoretically all the chemical substances containing five carbons can be called C5, but at present in the industry generally refers to cracked C5.The so-called cracked C5 refers to the C5 fraction after the naphtha cracking, which mainly contains alkanes, olefins, diolefins, cycloalkanes, aromatics, alkynes, etc. The cracked C5 fraction mainly contains alkanes, olefins, diolefins, cycloalkanes, aromatics, alkynes, etc. It is mainly used in the production of naphtha. Cracked C5 fraction is mainly from naphtha or other heavy cracking raw material steam cracking of ethylene by-products, generally accounted for about 10% of the output of ethylene, by the impact of cracking raw materials, C5 fraction composition changes accordingly, due to the rich content of isoprene, m-pentadiene, cyclopentadiene and other diolefin components and attracted attention. alkanes contained in the C5 is mainly refers to n-pentane, isopentane, and cyclopentane and so on, the C5 olefins mainly refers to n-pentene, isopentene, diolefin, cycloolefin, and so on. The alkanes contained in C5 mainly refer to n-pentane, isopentane and cyclopentane, while the C5 olefins mainly refer to n-pentene, isopentene, cyclopentene, dicyclopentadiene and so on.

According to incomplete statistics, there are more than 22 components in cracked C5, among which the olefin component accounts for the largest proportion, accounting for about 62% of the total components. And among the olefinic components, isoprene, cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene account for the largest proportion, with isoprene accounting for about 31% and cyclopentadiene (dicyclopentadiene) accounting for about 31%.

What are the downstream applications of Cracked C5?

According to the type of production process, Cracked C5 downstream can be divided into: full separation of components, partial separation, direct utilization and other applications. Since Cracked C5 is in the state of mixture, it must be separated in order to realize organic chemical production. At the same time, there are many components in cracked C5, and some enterprises have adopted the modes of partial separation and full separation.

In the production process of full separation, the main products are m-pentadiene, isoprene, dicyclopentadiene, 1-pentene, pumping residual C5 and other components. Full separation is to fully utilize the components in cracked C5 to isolate valuable chemicals and then expand downstream in the industry chain.

Partial separation refers to the separation of isoprene, m-pentadiene, dicyclopentadiene and some products from mono-olefins, as well as extraction residual C5 and C5 petroleum resins from the C5 fraction only. There are individual companies that do not have m-pentadiene and isoprene in the partial separation, but generally have petroleum resins.

Direct utilization refers to the use as feedstock for cracking units after rehydrogenation and saturation, as well as the use as oil conditioner. Other applications generally refer to fuel provided as calorific value, but such applications account for only about 1% of cracked C5, which is a very small percentage.

What are the fine chemical routes downstream of C5?

According to the main components of cracked C5, the products that can be further processed and utilized are n-pentene, isopentene, cyclopentadiene, dicyclopentadiene, isopentadiene, m-pentadiene and 1-pentene. Most of the alkane components in cracked C5 are used as cracker feedstock, blowing agents, refrigerants and other fields, and a relatively small proportion is produced as organic chemicals.

The downstream fine chemical route of n-pentene can be used as the production of 1-pentene, n-pentanal, n-pentanol and isoprene. Among them, 1-pentene is the key product separated from n-pentene, but the separation technology is not mature enough, and there is no industrialized application at present. And n-pentanal can be used in spice and rubber accelerator industry, also can be used as the basic raw material of n-pentanoic acid. The downstream n-pentanol can be prepared by n-pentene or oxidized by n-pentanal, and the downstream can be used as the basic raw material of 2-PH or the basic raw material of pentyl acetate. Most of this kind of industry chain is applied in the field of rubber accelerators, fragrances and plasticizers basic raw materials.

Isopentene is one of the most important basic raw materials in C5, which can be used in the production of isoprene, isopentanol, pinacolone, di-tert-pentylphenol, gatorade musk, water-reducing agents, gasoline additives and copolymerization monomers and other fields. Among them, the routes with higher refinement rate are Di-tert-pentylphenol, Isopentanol, Pinacolone and Gator Musk, and most of the downstream of these fields are expanded to the field of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceutical intermediates and antioxidants, which can be applied in many directions.

Isoprene, it can be used in tetramethyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, SIS, isoprene rubber, butyl rubber, isoprene latex, integrated rubber and other fields. Among them, methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride can be used in precision epoxy resin curing agent, applied in the field of electronics, machinery, pesticides, etc., and has certain development prospects. And integrated rubber, also known as SIBR, is a copolymer of styrene, isoprene, butadiene three monomers, belonging to the high-performance tire tread rubber, high impact polystyrene resin viscosity index improver, is a very promising rubber varieties.

Isoprene, it can be used as C5 petroleum resin, methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride, m-pentadiene concentrate resin, flavor and fragrance, copolymerization monomer and other directions. Which isoprene and m-pentadiene can be synthesized methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride, is the machine anhydride class epoxy resin curing agent, solvent-free paints, laminates, epoxy adhesives, etc., used as adhesives and curing agent field. The application of copolymerization monomer refers to the application as a terpolymer of m-pentadiene with styrene and acrylonitrile, which has certain development prospects.

Cyclopentadiene, generally can be used as norbornene, dicyclopentadiene, methylnorbornene, ethylnorbornene, polydicyclopentadiene, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, 2-chloro-5-chloromethylpyridine, 5-norbornene-2-aldehyde production. One of the industry’s concern is the application of norbornene, ethylenic norbornene, polydicyclopentadiene, can be used as a copolymerization monomer, is the development of C5 industry under the polymer materials, rubber and other products, for the development of new materials has a pivotal role. However, because cyclopentadiene is easy to dimerize at room temperature, the production of dicyclopentadiene, the current industry research, most of which is focused on the aspect of cyclopentadiene commodities and storage.

Dicyclopentadiene, mainly concentrated in the production of petroleum resins, such as dicyclopentadiene can be used to prepare C5 petroleum resins, unsaturated polyester resins, dicyclopentadiene dioxide, cyclopentadiene bis-epoxy compounds, dicyclopentadiene dicarboxylic acid, dicyclopentadienyl alcohol and other products. At present it is mostly used as petroleum resin products, fine chemical production, there is no industrialization in China for the time being. Due to the more serious homogenization of the petroleum resin industry, the relevant enterprises are looking for other fine chemical routes, in which dicyclopentadiene dioxide, cyclopentadiene dioxygen compounds and dicyclopentadiene dicarboxylic acid and other applications, has become the industry’s main focus on the direction.

Fourth, which fine chemical routes are worth further research?

According to my understanding, cracked C5 downstream although many fine chemical routes, but industrialized and with less scale route, mostly concentrated in the production process technology without barriers and more serious homogenization of the field, such as the field of petroleum resins. Domestic C5 petroleum resin is mainly concentrated in m-pentadiene, dicyclopentadiene, isoprene and other downstream production, expanding the C5 ordinary petroleum resin, non-hydrogenated petroleum resin, hydrogenated petroleum resin, unsaturated polyester resin and so on.

For C5 downstream fine chemical routes, with the chemical structural transformation and change at any time, it is worth further study of the reverse are: n-pentanal, n-pentanol, di-tert-pentylphenol, isovaleraldehyde, methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride, integrated rubber, norbornene, polydicyclopentadiene and other fields. These areas are characterized by new materials, new energy, high-end, green development of the cross, the overall profitability is relatively good, it is worth the industry to further study.

Finally, I would like to say that although C5 is a niche category in China’s chemical industry, it has many products and can be refined and extended in many directions. As the competition of chemical enterprises becomes more and more white-hot, the tapping of potential and efficiency under the niche category can also become an important direction and strategic consideration for chemical enterprises to enhance their competitiveness.

 

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