April 29, 2024 Longchang Chemical

Chitin, chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are all polysaccharides extracted from the shells of crustaceans (e.g. shrimps, crabs, shellfish), and they have some differences in structure and use:

1. Chitin (Chitosan):
Chitin is a linear polysaccharide consisting of N-acetylglucosamine monomers linked by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds.
It is a major component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and is also found in the cell walls of fungi.
Chitin has hard and tough properties and is often used in biomedicine, food industry and agriculture.
2. Chitosan (Chitosan):
Chitosan is a product obtained by deacetylation of chitin, i.e. the acetyl part of chitin is removed, forming chitosan.
Chitosan is a linear polymer consisting of glucosamine units and residual acetyl glucosamine units.
It has a variety of properties, such as good biocompatibility, degradability, antimicrobial properties, etc. Therefore, it has a wide range of applications in the fields of medicine, food and cosmetics.
3. Chitooligosaccharides (COS):
Chitooligosaccharides are oligosaccharide-like products obtained by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of chitosan, which are generally composed of 2 to 10 glucosamine units.
It has a smaller molecular weight and more active functional groups than chitosan, resulting in better biological activity and bioavailability.
Chitosan is considered to have antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumour and other biological activities, and has attracted much attention in the field of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
Therefore, although chitin, chitosan and chito-oligosaccharides are all polysaccharides extracted from the shells of crustacean organisms, they differ in their structures and properties, and thus in their applications.

Chitin has the effect of significantly and comprehensively improving the immune function of the body.
Therefore, in the face of various viruses, bacteria, parasites and even cancer, as long as the immune function in the human body can be activated at any time, it can effectively resist the invaders. Chitosan has higher protein adsorption capacity; Chitosan has affinity and solubility, suitable for the production of all kinds of derivatives; Chitosan shows selective and highly inhibit the growth of oral streptococcus, while not affecting the growth of other beneficial bacteria. Repairing cells, inducing cells and activating cells, it can repair the cell membrane from the cell membrane repair, the cell membrane repair after the cell is healthy, the cell is activated, so chitosan has the function of activating cells.

Secondly, chitin has anti-tumour effect.
Chitin, a positively charged polycation electrolyte, can be adsorbed to the surface of the tumour cells and play a role by activating the immune system, thus inhibiting the growth and metastasis of tumour cells. As we all know, carcinotoxins cause a drop in serum iron, and a drop in iron leads to anaemia. In addition, cancer toxin will also lead to the satiety nerve excitement and decomposition of body fat, which will make the appetite drop, resulting in the patient’s bone thinness and pain. Chitosan can inhibit cancer toxin, so that cancer yellow people will not be anaemic, and appetite is very good, to cancer patients to relieve the pain. Generally the body fluids of cancer patients are acidified, while after consuming chitin, the body fluids will be weakly alkaline, and phagocytes will be active at the end of the body fluids around PH value 7.4, which can engulf a large number of cancer cells.

Japanese oncologist Professor Togura developed and discovered 20 years ago that cancer cells themselves cannot metastasise, and can only metastasise by combining with the next molecule, which is negatively charged, while chitin is a cationic edible fibre and positively charged, so it can be combined with the next molecule, which prevents the cancer cells from combining with the next molecule, and thus inhibits the metastasis of the cancer cells effectively.

Ten years ago, a professor in a chitin academic seminar, in Japan, chitin has been done as an injection – inhibit cancer cell metastasis inhibition used for many years, but the general public can not afford to use, an injection will cost 10,000 U.S. dollars, every day three injections, three consecutive months can be cured. However, the capsule to the people can afford to eat, especially the amount of health care cheaper, only two dollars a day.

Third, chitin can regulate blood sugar, assist in the treatment of diabetes.
Chitin has a strong adsorption effect, can adsorb excess sugar and make it out of the body. Chitin can regulate the acid-base balance, so that oedema, degeneration, fibrosis of the pancreatic islet tissue is repaired. Diabetics are most concerned about blood glucose, yet it is glucose in the blood that is directly related to diabetes, not all sugars. Glucosamine, the metabolic breakdown product of chitosan, can directly activate pancreatic beta cells, improve the number and function of pancreatic beta cells, and restore pancreatic function. Acidic body is the culprit of inducing various diseases, especially diabetes. Experiments have proved that for every 0.1 rise in the PH value of human body fluids, the activity of insulin will rise by 30%. Chitosan is an alkaline polysaccharide, which can promote the PH value of human body to rise, presenting a weak alkaline which is beneficial to human health. Chitosan has a powerful adsorption effect, which can adsorb excess sugar in food and excrete it out of the body, preventing the rise of blood sugar. At the same time, chitosan can prevent and improve the complications of diabetes and reduce the incidence of cataract, retinal degeneration and fundopathy.

Fourth, chitosan can regulate blood pressure and prevent hypertension.
Chitin can regulate serum total cholesterol and triglycerides. Among them, HDL can bind and remove chloride ions, the culprit of hypertension, from the body, which can prevent various diseases caused by hypertension. It is usually ingested through salt. many people have been over-consuming salt since 2010. Chitosan excretes chloride ions through its own adsorption between chloride and ammonia ions. As mentioned earlier, chloride ions are the culprit of high blood pressure. Chitosan can bind and excrete negatively charged chloride ions by virtue of its unique positively charged property, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Long-term use of chitosan can remove acidic waste in the blood, soften blood vessels, enhance elasticity, and fundamentally regulate and alleviate elevated blood pressure. The uniqueness of chitosan also includes that it is a two-way regulation of blood pressure and blood sugar, that is to say, if you have low blood sugar and low blood pressure, it will activate its own powerful function to quickly regulate your blood pressure and blood sugar for you to be normal. Therefore, chitosan helps to prevent hypertension, especially those who consume too much salt!

Fifth, regulating blood lipids and preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Chitosan can prevent the digestion and absorption of lipids, adsorb cholesterol and exclude it from the body, promote the conversion of cholesterol, so that cholesterol is lowered, thus preventing and improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Chitosan has two mechanisms to lower cholesterol. Firstly, chitosan inhibits the activity of lipase, the enzyme that facilitates fat absorption. Lipase breaks down fats for absorption by the body. The other is the excretion of bile acids. Once bile acids are excreted, cholesterol in the blood is used to make bile acids. These two mechanisms make chitosan a strong cholesterol scavenger. And there are no side effects.

Sixth, chitosan is known as the “human body’s environmental protection agent”.
Chitosan is able to remove uncharged polar particles such as LDL, cholesterol, glycerol and other wastes from the body in the form of polar adsorption. In the form of electrostatic adsorption, the negatively charged particles, such as fatty acids, bile acids, lactic acid, chloride ions, etc. discharged from the body.

Seventh: slow down the aging effect of cells and curb the damage of free radicals to the organism.
Chitin in the body will continue to play the function of scavenging free radicals and inhibit peroxidation; reduce the damage to the organism’s tissue cells and interfere with the function of cells, which will undoubtedly play a role in slowing down the aging of cells. Free radicals are highly chemically active and are intermediate metabolic products of many biochemical reactions in human life activities. In order to prevent excessive accumulation of free radicals in the body, the human body is bound to produce some substances that can eliminate these free radicals – free radical eliminators. The 35th PLA Hospital He Deqing and other chitosan amine scavenging free radicals and inhibition of peroxidation did animal testing, from the test results, chitosan amine in the body will continue to play the function of scavenging free radicals and inhibition of peroxidation.

Eighth, chitosan can prevent radiation sickness and eliminate heavy metals in the body.
Chitosan can curb a large number of free radicals produced by radiation damage, enhance immune function, anti-infection, can reduce the toxic side effects of cancer patients in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and prevent occupational diseases arising from exposure to rays. One of the remarkable properties of chitosan is its adsorption capacity. Many low molecular weight materials, such as metal ions, cholesterol, triglycerides, bile acids and organic mercury, can be adsorbed by chitosan. In particular, chitosan can adsorb not only magnesium and potassium, but also zinc, calcium, mercury and uranium. The adsorption activity of chitosan can be selective. Too high a concentration of these metal ions in the body is harmful. For example, a high concentration of copper ions in the blood can lead to copper toxicity and even carcinogenic consequences. Chitin is a kind of polymer material, the solution of polymer material has viscosity at a certain concentration, and at the same time, due to its special molecular structure composition, it can make its surface absorption ability is also stronger, what’s more, there are a large number of polar groups in the molecular structure of chitin, which can adsorb many uncharged polar particles and discharge them out of the body.

Ninth, chitin has bactericidal and antibacterial effects.
The inhibitory effect of chitin on pathogenic organisms has long been studied. Human epidermal bacteria cultured on agar plates treated with powdered chitosan, chitin or crab shells were killed. Zheng Lianying et al, Institute of Biochemical Research, Zhejiang University, proposed the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan amine: chitosan amine enters the cell body through infiltration, absorbs the cytoplasm with anions in the cell body, and flocculation occurs, disrupting normal physiological activities of the cells, thus killing bacteria.

Tenth, chitosan has the effect of promoting wound healing.
Chitin has obvious promotion of wound granulation tissue growth, improve healing speed, inhibit and kill various bacteria, promote endothelial growth, reduce fibrous tissue proliferation and the role of scar formation. Chitin in the field of surgery, such as the treatment of trauma, burns, bedsores, etc. has a wide range of use values

Eleventh, chitin has a cosmetic effect.
Chitin is a natural polymer compounds, has good moisture retention, adsorption, viscosity, antibacterial, antistatic, film-forming, combing, softness and activation, repair of cells.

Twelfth, chitin is a new hope for the prevention and treatment of liver disease.
Chitin has the functions of improving body immunity, detoxification and detoxification, and activating cells. Chitin can not only activate the biological enzymes in the liver to prevent the occurrence of hepatitis and fatty liver, but also has the function of strengthening the immune system, preventing cholesterol and neutral fat absorption and can play a powerful role in cell resurrection.

Thirteenth, to improve the body’s acidic environment.
Through the alkaline group of chitin, the acidic body fluids that are not conducive to health, restore and regulate to the weak alkaline level that is conducive to health, improve the acidic body, not easy to disease. Therefore, even if healthy people and people in subhealthy state consume chitosan regularly, it will also play a health care role. The blood or other body fluids of the human body maintain a certain PH value. Generally speaking, body fluids should be weakly alkaline, otherwise they are prone to diseases. Therefore maintaining a weakly alkaline body fluid environment is essential for maintaining human health. After taking chitosan, through the alkaline gene of chitosan, the acidic body fluid which is not conducive to health can be restored and regulated to the weak alkaline level which is conducive to health, and the so-called acidic body fluid can be improved, and people will not be prone to diseases.

Fourteenth, treatment of bone and joint diseases.
Chitin in orthopaedic treatment, the efficacy of accurate and reliable should be the first arthritis. Chitin derivatives can promote chondrocyte proteoglycan synthesis, improve synovial fluid viscosity, improve articular cartilage metabolism, accelerate osteoblasts osteoclasts and fibroblasts scab formation, aminosugar and chondroitin sulfate into the human body, on the one hand, to promote the production of proteoglycans, collagen fibres and hyaluronic acid, which is essential for the production of articular cartilage. On the other hand, through the action of synovial membrane to promote the production of synovial fluid, so as to continuously lubricate the surface of articular cartilage, reduce the friction, so that the joints can move freely and flexibly. At the same time, synovial fluid, as a carrier of joint nutrients, can provide sufficient nutrition for articular cartilage, which is conducive to the recovery of osteoarthropathy and the healing of bone fracture.

Fifteenth, chitin can improve gastrointestinal function.
Chitin dissolved in gastric juice into a gel, in the gastrointestinal wall to form a protective layer that is not easy to separate, there is an inhibition of gastric acid on the damaged surface of the stimulation, corrosion, and promote the repair and healing of ulcers.

Sixteenth, chitin can promote the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria.
Chitin on the bifidobacteria have to promote the growth of the role, can inhibit the growth of intestinal pathogenic bacteria and spoilage bacteria, to prevent intestinal dysfunction and prevent intestinal infections, improve the absorption of nutrients. Chitin can be decomposed into small molecular weight chito-oligosaccharides in intestines, and this kind of oligosaccharides has been proved to be the source of nutrients for the beneficial bacteria in intestines, which can promote the growth and reproduction of the beneficial bacteria in intestines. This is a good effect on gastrointestinal diseases such as indigestion caused by long-term use of antibiotics, resulting in dysbiosis. Infants and young children are prone to dairy indigestion, which also needs to be corrected by taking chitosan.

Seventeenth, chitin regulation of the nervous and endocrine system.
“Chitin” under the action of enzymes into oligoglucosamine and glucosamine physiological activity increased significantly, stimulate the vagus nerve and parasympathetic nerves to increase the excitability of the corresponding tissues of the fine arteries and micro-arterioles dilation, blood speed, blood flow increased to improve microcirculation, specific functions have been strengthened. The level of secretin in endocrine organs rises, and the secretion function of gland cells is enhanced. Various physiological active substances produce good regulation accordingly.

Eighteenth, chitin “haemostasis and coagulation.
“Chitin” can stop bleeding has been confirmed by clinical medicine. The mechanism is that chitin can activate some links in the coagulation process. The positively charged amino group of chitin interacts with the negatively charged amino acid residue receptors on nerve cells to promote the coagulation process. Platelet coagulation with “chitin” in the affected area stimulates platelets to accelerate the coagulation process.

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