June 26, 2024 Longchang Chemical

sewage treatment plant: how does sewage treatment work?

1, sewage treatment plant organisational structure
Wastewater plant production and operation functions mainly by the plant, operation department (including the central control room and sections), power maintenance department (including electrician class and maintenance group) and laboratory to achieve, by the operation department to guide the operation of the sections. Sewage plant power and equipment maintenance system mainly consists of routine maintenance, regular maintenance, fault repair and improvement of maintenance.
In addition to sewage treatment system operation, the operation department is also responsible for the daily maintenance of equipment, including daily inspection and simple routine maintenance, such as adding lubricants, cleaning, filter replacement, small parts of the tightening and adjustment of equipment and so on (general completion of the work task time is about 0.5 hours). The Power Maintenance Department is mainly responsible for the regular maintenance of equipment, breakdown maintenance and improvement maintenance. The laboratory is administratively directly under the Drainage Company, actually located in the sewage plant, and works in close co-ordination with the Operations Department under the coordination of the Plant Manager. Scheduling of sewage into the plant by the Ministry of Plant in the operation of the Department with the assistance of the Division and pumping station for drainage.
2, water quality monitoring indicators
Water quality monitoring indicators in accordance with the “urban sewage treatment plant pollutant discharge standards” GB18918-2002 and the construction of the plant approved by the environmental impact assessment report to determine the level of implementation of the testing cycle of the various testing items with reference to the “urban sewage treatment plant operation, maintenance and its safety technical regulations” CJJ60-94 implementation. That is, PH value, SS, BOD5, CODcr, NH3-N, TN, TP once a day, faecal coliform count once a week, and the rest of the testing indicators once every six months. Generally speaking, the drainage company will appropriately raise the monitoring standard of the sewage treatment plant in order to ensure that the sewage treatment plant can meet the requirements of the Environmental Protection Bureau.
3, the drainage company on the sewage treatment plant performance assessment indicators
Drainage company on the sewage treatment plant technical assessment indicators should include at least the following scope.
Water quality: Effluent water quality compliance rate: CODcr, BOD5, SS, NH3-N, TN, TP every 2h sampling, take 24h mixed samples, to the daily average. Fecal coliform indicator once a week.
Effluent water quality compliance rate (%) = (monthly total number of qualified testing indicators – number of unqualified) * 100 / total number of testing indicators per month
Water quantity: overflow rate of untreated sewage (%) = (volume of water delivered by intake pumping station – actual treatment volume of sewage plant) * 100 / volume of water delivered by pumping station
Laboratory task completion rate: laboratory task completion rate (%) = (actual number of test items * 100) / according to the number of items and frequency should be tested items
Equipment and Instrumentation Completion Rate: Equipment and Instrumentation Completion Rate (%) = (number of units in good condition * 100) / total number of units in good condition
Consecutive time without liability casualties (days)
With the improvement of the company’s organisation and management experience, other indicators can be gradually included in the scope of assessment.
4、Prerequisites for the first operation of the system
Personnel training: the initial operation of the system is an important step before the normal operation of the sewage treatment plant, the operator should be at this stage for the normal operation of the system later to accumulate experience. In the system for the first time before the operation should be completed on the job training of all employees and safety training.
Each unit of treatment structures in the cleanup, anticorrosion and equipment fastening: sewage treatment plant into normal operation may not be able to stop for a long time, so before the system for the first time before the operation of the rubbish and debris should be cleared from all the structures, and at the same time, should be carefully inspected and repaired structures and machinery and equipment, painting, anticorrosion and fastening conditions.
System stand-alone commissioning, structure seepage test: system stand-alone commissioning and structure seepage test should be carried out before the initial operation of the system, including the water treatment system and mud treatment system of the various process pools, process equipment, auxiliary equipment, and gate valves and weir gates and so on. By the civil subcontractor and equipment suppliers, installation units were completed, and submit a single commissioning and structure seepage test report. At the same time, pay attention to the process of elevation requirements of the contents of the verification, such as the turn brush elevation of the same, and with the weir door elevation co-ordination. Wastewater treatment plant personnel should be involved in the work, and acceptance of stand-alone commissioning and seepage test work.
Check the inlet and outlet conditions: Before initial operation of the system, the sewerage system should have the capacity to collect and lift sewage and be able to control the water intake and intake period through the sewerage control system, and at the same time, it should be ensured that the effluent pipeline of the WWTP is connected to the receiving water body, so as to ensure that the treated tail water after treatment at the WWTP can be discharged into the receiving water body.
Review of the design load when the process of overwater capacity: review of the design load when the process of overwater capacity refers to review from the intake lifting pump to the outlet process of overwater capacity can reach the design load. As it has been through the stand-alone commissioning, it can be reviewed with the sewage intake to save fresh water. If problems arise the contractor should be notified to carry out alterations until the design load is reached.
System linkage: The system linkage of a new wastewater treatment plant shall be completed by the general contractor. The purpose of the system linkage test is to test the operation of equipment, process parameters monitoring and control capabilities and test the coordination of operation between equipment. In the system linkage process should focus on debugging automatic control and field control system operation.
5、Selection of inoculated sludge
Inoculated sludge should be used in the nearby city municipal sewage treatment plant of the remaining sludge, in order to reduce the transport pressure should be taken after dewatering and drying sludge. Generally, it is cultivated in one group of oxidation ditch first, and after successful cultivation, it is pumped into the second group of oxidation ditch to continue to cultivate the activated sludge through the reflux sludge pump.
6、Activated sludge domestication (take oxidation ditch as an example)
The first stage
Feed water to the reaction tank of oxidation ditch and start the underwater pusher. Continuous water intake to the oxidation ditch water level reaches 1/3 of the design effective water depth, the inoculated sludge is evenly put into the oxidation ditch reaction pool, the use of air blower aeration system to start aeration, and continuous water intake to the oxidation ditch reaction pool water level reaches the design operating level (using a rotating brush or disc aeration system, start aeration at this time), in the continuous water intake after the completion of the sludge inoculation, and gradually increase the amount of aeration to the aeration volume Reach the maximum.
After the oxidation ditch water level reaches the design operating level, continue to feed water to the second sedimentation tank. Start the sedimentation tank scraper and sludge return pump after 2 hours of water intake in the secondary sedimentation tank, so that the activated sludge settled in the secondary sedimentation tank can be collected quickly in the early stage of sludge domestication and returned to the biological treatment tank. Sludge reflux rate should be adjusted by observing the reflux sludge situation, and the sludge reflux ratio, in general, should be controlled between 50~100%.
When the secondary sedimentation tank reaches the normal operating level, the activated sludge condition should be observed, and the water intake should be controlled until the appearance of fuzzy flocs, at which time the water can be appropriately fed and exchanged to replenish the nutrients, and the amount of water exchanged can be controlled at 25% of the capacity of oxidation ditch tank and then repeat the above operation. When the secondary sedimentation tank begins to overflow, start the subsequent sewage treatment process, such as disinfection process.
After the water level of the biological treatment tank reaches the normal operating level, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration value in the oxidation ditch should be monitored at any time (through the dissolved oxygen meter) in order to judge whether the aeration volume is sufficient, and make adjustments accordingly. In the activated sludge domestication process, the concentration of dissolved oxygen should be able to meet the following three possible situations.
a) Low concentration of dissolved oxygen in influent and return sludge; more oxygenation is required.
b)The influent water is anoxic and requires sufficient dissolved oxygen to change it quickly into an oxygenated environment; and
c) When the sewage is rich in nutrients, a large amount of dissolved oxygen is needed to satisfy the growth of microorganisms.
In the process of sludge domestication, the minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen should ensure that the concentration of dissolved oxygen at the outlet of the oxidation ditch is not less than 1.0 mg/L. In the first stage of activated sludge domestication, due to the low concentration of activated sludge, a large number of bubbles may be generated during the process of aeration, and in the actual operation of the process, corresponding treatment measures, such as the use of spraying water droplets, and other measures to remove foam.
The second stage
After the sludge domestication work has entered the second stage, monitoring of dissolved oxygen should be carried out at the same time as monitoring of the 30-minute settling ratio (SV) and nutrient parameters of the activated sludge should be started. In the process of monitoring the activated sludge settlement ratio, it can be found that in the first few days of this stage, the colour of the sludge-water mixture is almost the same as that of the influent water, and as the aeration time increases, the particles of the sludge-water mixture become bigger, the settlement performance becomes better, and the colour gradually changes to black-brown.
In this stage the activated sludge settling ratio can reach 20%. The purpose of detecting nutrients is to provide conditions for the growth of microorganisms, in the process of activated sludge domestication nutrient parameters BOD: N: P should be controlled at 100: 5: 1 or so, if you can’t reach this parameter should be injected with nutrients to regulate.
The third stage
After the activated sludge domestication work enters the third stage, the activated sludge domestication work is basically completed. In this stage, the key parameters of the mud-water mixture should be monitored, analysed and controlled in strict accordance with the analysis plan listed in Sample Table 3-1, and the relevant data should be saved for reference in normal operation of the system. When the activated sludge concentration value reaches the specified range and is relatively stable, it can be considered that the activated sludge domestication work is basically completed. After the sewage is treated by biochemical and precipitation, the SS of effluent should reach the standard. Residual sludge discharge should be carried out according to the actual operation during this stage.
Phase IV
The purpose of this stage is to record the operating parameters, i.e. key control parameters such as activated sludge 30-minute settling ratio (SV), bioscopy, sludge return ratio and residual sludge discharge. It provides a reference for the normal operation of the system. The sludge reflux ratio should be increased when the influent concentration is low and sludge growth is poor, while it should be decreased when sludge swelling and other conditions occur.
The sludge reflux ratio should be strictly controlled at this stage of sludge domestication and later during normal operation of the system. If the sludge reflux ratio is not guaranteed, the following phenomena may occur:
There is not enough activated sludge to treat the pollutants. This situation usually occurs in the first one to two weeks of the system start-up; if the sludge return ratio is small, resulting in a longer residence time of sludge in the settling tank, the sludge undergoes anaerobic reaction in the secondary sedimentation tank, and upliftment and odour may occur; the sludge forms a thicker mud layer in the secondary sedimentation tank, which may lead to a higher concentration of suspended solids in the effluent; when there is a sufficient concentration of dissolved oxygen, the activated sludge in the biological treatment tank will produce a nitrification reaction, which may lead to a denitrification reaction in the settling tank resulting in an increase in sludge volume.
After the end of the fourth stage of sludge domestication and the completion of sludge domestication work, the activated sludge operating parameters should be within the design control range and relatively stable.
7、Temperature requirement
Temperature is one of the environmental factors of sludge domestication, all kinds of microorganisms grow in a specific range of temperature, the temperature range of sludge domestication is 10~40℃, the best temperature is 20~30℃. Therefore, it is recommended that the initial operation of the system should not be carried out in winter.

8、pH value requirement
The pH value is also one of the influencing factors. In the sludge domestication and later normal operation process should be the system of influent water pH control between 6 ~ 9.
9、Nutrient requirements
Good nutritional conditions is the premise of bacteria metabolism and growth. In the process of sludge domestication should be controlled in the parameters of nutrients BOD: N: P for 100: 5: 1 or so, to provide good growth conditions for sludge domestication.
10、Dissolved oxygen (DO) requirements
DO is the main control index in the process of sludge domestication, in the process of sludge domestication should be controlled in the range of DO 0.5~2.0mg/L. (Dissolved oxygen concentration measurement point is, 4.5m downstream of the rotating disc aerator water).DO can be detected by the dissolved oxygen tester, but also can be detected by manual testing, in order to understand the pattern of change of the change of DO in the pool.
11、Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids Concentration (MLSS) Requirements
Biological sludge is an active part of the sludge, but also the main body of organic metabolism, in the biological treatment process plays a major role, and the mixed liquid sludge concentration MLSS value can be relatively expressed in the biological part of the number. The concentration of activated sludge should be controlled at 2~4g/L. 12.
12、Biological phase of sludge microscopy requirements
Activated sludge is in different growth stages, all kinds of microorganisms also show different proportions. Bacteria bear the basic and fundamental metabolic role of decomposing organic matter, while protozoa (including postbiotics) devour free bacteria. Normal operation of activated sludge contains bellworms, rotifers, ciliates, bacterial colloid and so on. When the bacterial colloid piece is large. Clockworms active and more, the emergence of rotifers, nematodes, sludge maturity and good nature.
13、Sludge 30 minutes settlement ratio (SV) requirements
The sludge 30-minute sedimentation ratio should be controlled between 15% and 30% during normal operation of activated sludge.
14、Adjustment of sludge age
The main basis is the sludge concentration in the oxidation ditch, the concentration of suspended solids in the influent water (SS) and the sludge settlement performance index (SVI), the main means of regulation is to adjust the residual sludge discharge. Residual sludge discharge is the most important operation in the activated sludge process control, which controls the concentration of the mixture, controls the age of sludge, changes the microbial species and growth rate of activated sludge, changes the oxygen demand of the aeration tank, and changes the settling performance of sludge.
15、Sludge age calculation
In the above formula:
QS: sludge age (d)
MLSS: suspended solids concentration of mixed liquor (mg/L)
Q: influent flow (m3/d)
SSi: influent suspended solids concentration (mg/L)
16、Cell average residence time calculation formula:
In the above formula:
MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (mg/L)
Va: oxidation ditch volume (m3)
Qw: daily discharge volume (m3/d)
SSr: return sludge concentration (mg/L)
SSe: concentration of suspended solids in effluent (mg/L)
QS of activated sludge is about 15 days, MCRT should be slightly lower than QS, and gradually adjusted down in the process of operation. Return sludge concentration SSr is mainly controlled by the reflux ratio, increasing the reflux ratio decreases the sludge concentration, decreasing the reflux ratio increases the sludge concentration, and the sludge concentration is used to calculate F/M.
17、Adjustment of dissolved oxygen
Its main basis is the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the oxidation ditch, the main means of aeration intensity control; oxidation ditch, sewage mixture in the oxidation ditch circulating flow to the brush, turn the disc or table voice machine to promote and oxygenation, in the downstream of the aeration device dissolved oxygen concentration changes from high to low, from aerobic section gradually transition to anoxic section, aerobic section of the concentration of DO is suitable to control the DO in the 1mg / L ~ 3mg / L, anoxic section DO should be controlled 0.2~0.5mg/L.
Turning brush (disc) aeration can adjust the height of the water weir, so that the turning brush (disc) to change the submerged buoyancy and change the amount of aeration, if there is no frequency conversion speed control device, you can change the rotational speed to adjust the amount of aeration, but also open or reduce the number of turning brush (disc) to adjust the amount of aeration. If you reduce the amount of aeration and affect the water flow rate in the pool (should be controlled at 0.25m/s or more), you should open the underwater pusher to ensure that the flow rate in the pool, not siltation.

18、Adjustment of reflux sludge volume
It is mainly based on the sludge settling index and the thickness of the sludge in the second settling tank, and the main regulating means is the reflux ratio. In the oxidation ditch process, the remaining sludge after reasonable discharge of the second sedimentation tank sludge must be all returned to the oxidation ditch, in order to ensure the concentration of sludge in the aeration tank, so as to ensure its treatment capacity, the control of the amount of reflux sludge is based on this requirement, and its methods are:
According to the mud level control of the secondary sedimentation tank, that is, according to the mud level determined by the design requirements, or so that the mud layer thickness control between 0.3 ~ 0.9m, while making the mud layer thickness is less than 1/3 of the depth of water above the mud level. if the actual mud level is more than the set mud level, the flow rate of the return flow should be increased, and if the mud level is lower than the set value should be reduced to reduce the flow rate of the return flow, so that the mud level is gradually controlled in the set value, but the adjustment should not be more than 10%, to be the next inspection Check the mud level changes, and then give appropriate adjustments, when the two sedimentation tank mud level is stable, at a value of time, indicating that all the sludge has been refluxed to the aeration tank, to meet the process requirements, the return flow and the amount of water directly related to the water intake, water intake increased (or reduced), with the amount of sludge out of the aeration tank increased proportionally (or reduced), back to the flow should be a proportional increase (or reduced).
Therefore, it is customary to use the return ratio (R), that is, the return sludge volume and the ratio of water intake to control.
19, running state of the corrective
Running status is not ideal, usually due to the above three adjustments can not be caused in time, hydraulic load (F / M) is not appropriate may also be one of the reasons, it may also be mechanical or hydraulic failures and sudden changes in the quality of water intake (such as unplanned industrial wastewater shock load) caused. Timely adjustment must be in operation for a long time on the seasonal water quality (including water temperature) water quantity trend analysis can be concluded.
Operating parameters of the adjustment has a lag effect, it should be carefully adjusted (single adjustment should be less than 10%) and patiently observed. Common operating faults characterisation and response methods are shown in Appendix IV, system fault diagnosis guide, each plant can be added or deleted according to their own circumstances. In the process of corrective action, the key process control parameter is F/M, i.e. BOD5 sludge load, F/M is calculated as follows:
In the above formula:
Q: water intake (m3/d)
BOD5: five-day biochemical oxygen demand (mg/L)
f: constant, generally take 0.75 for municipal sewage
MLVSS: mixed liquid volatile suspended solids concentration (mg/L)
Va: oxidation ditch effective volume (m3)
As BOD5 need five days to obtain results, so again using the determination of COD to push BOD5, the F/M value of the oxidation ditch should be controlled between 0.05 and 0.15.
20, fault scheduling
Wastewater plant emergencies include:
a) power outages or power cuts.
b)Major failure in the plant; and
c)Pipeline pump station failure; and
d) Storm flooding.
Dispatch of incoming sewage during heavy rainfall will be coordinated by the plant department with the assistance of the Central Control Room with the Drainage Management Division and lift pumping stations as necessary.
21, check the instrument data records
a) Operational control parameters are normal.
b) whether the return pump and sludge pump operation is normal.
c) Whether DO in oxidation ditch is within the range of 1.0mg/L to 3.0mg/L.
d) Whether chlorination is normal.
22、Sensory inspection
Oxidation ditch in the mixture of colour can be used as a bad sludge or healthy sludge indicators, a healthy aerobic activated sludge should be similar to the colour of chocolate brown.
Whether the secondary sedimentation tank is normal, whether the surface water is clear, bubbles in the pool, floating sludge, whether the mud layer is too thick. If the mud layer is too thick, the sludge reflux ratio should be increased.
Whether the water is clear, can directly reflect the operating conditions, reflecting the sludge settling performance.
23、Check the record of laboratory data
Sludge index (SVI) and microbiological microscopy, SVI should usually be 70-100. if SVI is too high, sludge expansion may occur, if SVI is too low, it may be sludge aging. If filamentous bacteria are found in the microscopic examination, chlorination of the return sludge should be considered. Air dosage (for blast aeration), DO should be maintained at 1mg/l to 3mg/l in the oxidation ditch, it can be assumed that the air dosage is directly related to the influent BOD5, which is not available until five days after sampling. BOD5 will not be available until five days after sampling. The tracking of air usage (combined with COD value) is a reference indicator of influent BOD5.
24, inlet and outlet pumping station pre-startup inspection
Pre-startup inspection includes:
a) water level in the suction pond, whether it is above the permissible start-up water level
b) whether there is any debris in the water that may affect the pump operation
c) Check whether the pumping machine is installed correctly, fasteners are not loose, cables, junction boxes are normal, the outlet gate (if any) is closed.
d) Check the console (cabinet) switch position, switch to manual control state, check the three-phase power supply voltage should be within the range of the provisions of the proposed motor sensor humidity, temperature is normal, the subsequent process section is allowed to enter the water.
25, in and out of the water pump station inspection
Suction pool water level, suction pool with or without debris, one by one work machine pump running sound, three-phase voltage, current, sensor humidity, temperature, pump outlet pressure, flow rate, check the control cabinet, switching switches are set in the set position of self-control or manual control, machine and pump pipeline ancillary equipment, and the machine room, doors and windows are normal. Inspection frequency for the shift, shift each one (increase shift content), the rest of the time every 2 hours inspection, shift inspection also includes equipment, instrumentation, pump room and pump room around the birth of the area of responsibility for health and maintenance work.
Inspection process found that the problem should be immediately adjusted and recorded in the record sheet, such as water level below the set value, should be immediately shut down, check the water level relay, so that the return to normal, if the water level is higher than the set value, should be notified to the control room to increase the opening of the pump, the pump is running normally check the water level relay, so that the return to normal; such as sucking pool debris should be immediately cleaned up, if you have to go down the pool to clean up, it should be according to the If you have to go down to the pool to clean it, you should operate according to the “safety operation requirements in a small space” and notify the control room to transfer people to support and monitor, and you should check the source of the debris and take necessary measures to prevent similar situations from happening again.
If the sound of pump operation is not normal, we should find the reason and make it back to normal; if the operating parameters of the pump are not normal, we should adjust and maintain it to make it normal. When the weather changes suddenly, such as heavy rain is coming, should increase inspection, check the door, window and take the necessary waterproof lightning measures. Equipment for the first time, equipment after inspection, transformation or long-term out of service into the system to increase the number of inspections, that is, an increase of 30 minutes, 75 minutes each, if everything is normal that is transferred to normal inspection every 120 minutes.
26, in and out of the pumping station maintenance content and frequency
Gate valve: once a month by the long day shift. Check the valve stem sealing, if necessary, replace the packing, lubrication point of the lubricant filling, if the electric gate valve should check the limit switch, manual and electric interlocking device; if the long-term immobile gate valve should be done every month to open and close the test. Slow closing check valve, once a month debugging slow closing mechanism, lubricant filling.
Lifting equipment such as truss car or electric hoist should do shifting and lifting test every month, check the steel wire rope for lifting to prevent corrosion and detect its wear and tear, if the wear and tear is greater than 10% of the original diameter or found to have broken strands, then it should be reported to the maintenance group for replacement. Once a shift, check whether metal components such as pipelines, gate valves, submersible pump lifting hole covers, guardrails, ladders, brackets, etc. are tight and stable, and take stabilisation measures, and if they start to corrode, then descale and anti-corrosion measures should be taken.
Replace damaged lighting fixtures in time. Before handing over the shift, do a sanitary work on the pipeline, gate valve and its ancillary equipment, electrical control cabinet cabinet, pump room door, window, wall, floor and the surrounding hygiene area of responsibility. And the electrical control cabinet of the disabled listing review, and keep the position accurate.
27, catchment well cleaning and frequency
Every other year should collect water wells to clean up and check the pool body for cracks and corrosion, if the structure has been stabilised, mud accumulation and corrosion is not serious can be appropriate to extend the cleaning cycle.
It is advisable to choose the time period when the sewage volume is small to organise the cleaning, estimate the cleaning time and estimate the overflow sewage volume, report to the drainage company after determining the time, and then organise the implementation after being approved. Before the cleaning, we must make sufficient preparations for manpower, material resources, illumination, ventilation and safety measures, try to shorten the time of stopping the water supply and ensure the safety, and make good arrangements for the subsequent changes in the production of the process before the work can be started.
When the host will collect water pool down to the lowest water level, cut off the power supply of all hosts, lifting the submersible pump one by one, into a small mobile submersible pump to continue pumping, while using high-pressure water gun to flush and clean the pool wall, the need to go down to the pool when the operation must be carried out in strict accordance with the “safe operation in a confined space,” the main point is to carry out mandatory ventilation, ventilation in the most The key point is to carry out forced ventilation, in the ventilation of the most unfavourable point to detect the concentration of toxic gases and oxygen deficit, to meet the requirements before people, and at the same time must continue to ventilate, the intensity can be appropriately reduced, but can not be stopped, because the pool of dirt will still be releasing poisonous gases to be supervised by someone, under the pool should not be more than 30 minutes of work time.
Check the pool cracks and corrosion, check the pipeline, rail and pump interface corrosion, if necessary, anticorrosion treatment, check the pipeline stability and water level detection instrumentation, make a detailed record and resume production. Clear the pool at the same time electromechanical maintenance workers should be lifting the submersible motor cleaning, inspection and maintenance, after the completion of clearing the pool lifting reset, water discharge operation.

28, coarse and fine grating operation and maintenance
Before starting a new or re-commissioned grating should be checked:
a) no debris in the grille
b) lubricating oil and lubricating oil level
c) the grille with operating conditions
d) slag conveyor and slag press with operating conditions
e) in and out of the water gate opening and closing flexible, airtight to meet the requirements
f) electric and monitoring system is good
g) automatic control instruments, meters are normal, accurate information transmission; manual control cabinet with operating conditions, automatic control and manual control device switching is normal.
After completing the above checks and confirming that there is no error, you can start the grille into operation, grille startup steps are:
a) start the motor, to determine the normal operation of the motor
b) start the water inlet gate to start feeding water
c) start the grating and decontamination machine
d) start the slag conveyor
Detailed operation steps will be adjusted and supplemented by the supplier or the project city according to the actual situation.
Grid into operation within 1 hour, should pay close attention to the working condition of the whole machine, if you find any abnormal vibration or noise should be immediately shut down for inspection, troubleshooting before being put into operation.
29, clear (transport) slag procedures
Grid decontamination machine cleaned down the slag through the grid slag conveyor to the slag bucket. Slag in the hopper when the slag reaches 80% of the design capacity should be transported in a timely manner, while at least once per shift should be transported, transported to the sewage treatment plant designated locations unified treatment.
30, sand sedimentation tank (cyclone sedimentation tank, for example) operating procedures
Start a new or re-commissioned cyclone sand sedimentation tank should be checked before:
a) clean up the inlet and outlet pipes and gravel and other debris in the pool
b) the mixer and transmission device with operating conditions
c) air compressor with operating conditions
d) air pipeline and its support is stable
e)Sand lifting system and sand discharge pipeline are in operation condition.
f) Sand washer with operating conditions
g) All valves and gates are opened and closed in accordance with design requirements.
h)The anti-corrosion and fastening of mechanical equipment below the water surface and the wall and bottom of the pool are completed.
i) electric system, monitoring system and protection system is intact
j) control system on-site manual control cabinet with operating conditions, automatic control instruments, meters and information transmission is accurate and normal, automatic control and manual control switching function is normal.
31、The start-up procedure of cyclone sand sedimentation tank is:
a) Start water inlet gate to start water inlet.
b) Start the mixing device
c) set the operating parameters of sand lifting system
d)Start the sand washer
e) Removal of the sand hopper when it is full.
Detailed start-up procedures shall be adjusted and supplemented by the supplier or the project city according to the actual situation.
When starting the system, the flow rate of each pool should be adjusted until the flow rate is balanced and as close as possible to the design requirements. The automatic control parameters for sand removal and sand washing shall be adjusted according to the sand content of the effluent. But at least once a day to review, in the sand sedimentation tank load changes in the sand content of the water should be tested and should meet the process requirements.
The sand cleaned by the sand washer is collected in a sand hopper or on a truck and removed in a timely manner, and the cleaned sand should be transported to a designated location. The organic content of the excluded sand should be tested regularly, and the organic content is required to be less than 10%.
When the inlet gate valve is closed to stop the operation of the sand sedimentation tank, the sand lifting operation should be carried out to make sure that the sand removal from the sand sedimentation tank is completed and the sand lifting system operation is stopped.

32、Normal operation parameters of various types of sand sedimentation tanks
The content of organic matter in sand particles should be less than 10%.
33、Biological treatment unit (take oxidation ditch as an example) operating procedures
Due to power outage or equipment maintenance and other reasons for a short period of time to stop running, the activated sludge is still active restart should be operated in accordance with the following steps. Pre-start inspection includes: rubbish cleaning: clean up the floating debris in the oxidation ditch. Clean the rubbish and debris on the walkway. Aeration system check: if using the blower aeration system check: (blower check according to the provisions of 4.9 in the implementation). Aeration head without blockage. Air pipeline without air leakage. Valve opening and closing status on the air pipeline.
If the use of rotary brush and table aeration machine aeration system checks are as follows: rotary brush and table aeration machine check: reducer lubricant oil level, bearing lubrication, equipment fastening, motor and reducer box around the debris cleanup, discs, rotary brush, blade fastening and its integrity.
Underwater pusher inspection: placement direction and equipment fastening is intact and has the operating conditions.
Exit weir door inspection: weir mouth adjusting device is not rusted, the tightness meets the requirements, and the height of the exit weir door meets the requirements.
Piping system, gate and valve inspection: no leakage of exposed pipeline, stable support, good painting and anticorrosion; gate opening and closing flexible opening and closing status in accordance with the design requirements.
34、Biological treatment unit (oxidation ditch for example) inspection
Oxidation ditch system daily inspection includes the following:
The removal of scum and foam on the surface of oxidation ditch, judging whether the operation is normal according to the smell emitted, reviewing the dissolved oxygen concentration on-site test and online instrument data, reviewing the pH on-site test and online instrument data, the colour of mixed liquor, the clarity of mud-water separation of anaerobic tank mixed liquor. Motor and transmission operation (noise, vibration, current and voltage, etc.), mechanical equipment lubricant oil level, rotating butterfly, rotating brush noise and vibration, rotating butterfly and rotating brush bearing lubrication, sludge settling ratio (once per shift), outlet weir adjustments, underwater pusher operation and water flow rate.
The inspection process should focus on observing the colour of the mixture, the odour of the oxidation ditch site, and the clarity of the mud-water separation in the anaerobic tank, and any abnormality found should be instantly notified to the central control room for adjustment.
Colour of the mud-water mixture: the colour of the mixture in the oxidation ditch system in good operating condition is black brown to dark black brown, if the sludge concentration decreases, the colour of the mud-water mixture will change from dark black brown to light black brown. If the amount of oxygen is not enough, the mud-water mixture will become black.
Odour:The odour of a normally operating oxidation ditch system should be mildly musty. If the system is not operating properly, it may result in the production of irritating odour gas. When rotten egg odour is present, the system may be undergoing an anaerobic reaction. Measures should be taken to increase the oxygen charge.
Clearness of the upper layer of the anoxic section mixture: In a normally operating oxidation ditch system, a clear layer 1 to 2 cm deep can be observed in the upper layer of the mud-water mixture in the anoxic section of the oxidation ditch. The specific depth of the clear water layer depends on the flow rate of the oxidation ditch and the sedimentability of the activated sludge.
Foam on the surface of the oxidation ditch: The production of white foam on the surface of the oxidation ditch is usually caused by insufficient sludge concentration. In the process of system start-up white foam on the surface of the oxidation ditch is more common, with the increase of sludge concentration, the phenomenon of foam can be gradually disappeared.
Oxidation ditch system inspection line should be based on the actual situation to determine their own; inspection frequency should be every 2 hours, in the shift handover should be the shift handover personnel and take over the system for a tour and inspection, inspection frequency can be adjusted according to the actual situation. 35, the second sedimentation tank operating procedures
Two sedimentation tank startup is divided into empty pool startup and full pool startup, the following startup operation steps are empty pool startup, if the full pool startup, the underwater inspection part can be omitted.
In the start of maintenance and put back into operation before the two sedimentation tank system, should be checked before starting: control gate opening and closing performance is good, no sand or other residues in the pool, mechanical equipment lubrication and oil level is appropriate, power, switchgear, control system, gears, transmission gears, travelling wheels, overload protection devices and wheel paths with operating conditions, bridge scraper running a few laps to check the scraper on the position of the rubber brushes are appropriate If the position is too high or too low, it should be adjusted in time.
At the same time, the mechanical operation should be stable and uniform speed rotation and no bumps or jumps up and down phenomenon, slag bucket can collect floating slag. If the mud scraper system is equipped with overload alarm device, it should be tested whether the machinery and equipment will automatically alarm and shut down in case of overload. The fastening and corrosion protection of the equipment below the water surface, no residue or clogging condition in the distribution tank and return sludge pipeline, good corrosion protection of the sedimentation tank structure, no cracks and other potential failures, and the level of the collecting weir plate, no defects.
Start the water inlet gate to feed water into the sedimentation tank, the operator should make the pools evenly feed water when feeding. When the sedimentation tank into the water for 2 hours, start scraping machine.
In the start-up operation stage should determine the mud scraper to complete a working cycle of various operating parameters, and with the design value and equipment acceptance records against, judge whether in the normal range.
In the start-up operation to increase the frequency of inspection, the first interval of 30 minutes, the second interval of 45 minutes, if no problem arises, the system can be transferred to normal inspection.
36, disinfection to determine the amount of oxygen
Disinfection can kill germs in the discharge of sewage to prevent the spread of disease and proliferation, but chlorination and organic reaction will generate carcinogenic substances, so both to eliminate germs, but also to minimise the amount of chlorination, the national standard requires the control of the number of fecal coliforms (easy to measure, but also reflect the germs to kill the situation of an indirect index), so it should be determined through experiments chlorination index, and then calculate the amount of chlorine according to the amount of water discharged, the steps are:
a, determine the number of coliform bacteria in the water
b. Divide the water sample into six 100 ml cup samples
c. Add 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0mg of chlorine to each cup sample, so that the chlorination index of each cup sample is 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10mg/L respectively.
d, stirring water samples, simulate the actual operation, sewage in the contact tank residence time.
e, after reaching the residence time, respectively, to determine the number of coliform bacteria.
f. Take the minimum amount of chlorine required to meet the standard for coliform bacteria.
g、According to the average daily water intake for chlorine dosage
Chlorination (Kg / h) = [Q average (m3 / h) * test chlorination indicators (mg / L)] / 1000
37, disinfection start-up steps
a. Chlorine ready to use and move to the chlorination position, determine the weight, to determine the chlorine bottle with chlorine.
b. If the chlorine bottle is more than 500Kg, rotate the chlorine valve to the vertical up and down, slightly cushion the end of the chlorine valve of the chlorine bottle, and strictly use the chlorine valve, hang up the “use” sign.
c、Clear the debris in the valve port of the main chlorine valve, put on the special gasket, and install the chlorine gas connection pipe.
d. Before adding chlorine normally, the pressurised pump should be turned on first to make the water jet work normally. After stopping chlorination, the pressurised pump should continue to work for 2-3 minutes before stopping operation.
e, slightly open the chlorine valve, with 10% ammonia to check whether the joint leakage of chlorine, chlorine valve whether chlorine, if the temperature is low, open the shower heating, and should strictly prevent the chlorine valve shower corrosion. And according to the above section of the experimental requirements of the amount of chlorine filling.
f, the use of chlorine machine, please follow the use of chlorine machine used in accordance with the instructions prepared.
38、Chemical dissolution and preparation
Chemical dissolution and preparation procedures are: dissolving tank into the water to a certain amount → at the same time the quantitative chemical added to the dissolving tank → start stirring until completely dissolved → dissolving tank → continue to feed the water to the required concentration of the liquid. The concentration of chemical preparation should be adjusted according to the actual operation. In the process of operation should always pay attention to the working status of the liquid level control system, review the level of chemicals in the dissolving tank, in order to avoid idling metering pumps and no chemical dosage.
39, chemical phosphorus removal system check before starting
Check the following: no leakage of dosing line, metering pump with operating conditions, dosing line valve opening and closing status in line with the design requirements, the reaction tank with operating conditions.
After the completion of the pre-start check, you can start the operation, start the operation of the procedure for: reaction pool into the water (if the mechanical reaction pool, you should start the mixing device at the same time to start), start the metering pump to add chemicals.
Detailed starting operation steps are adjusted and supplemented by the supplier or project city according to the actual situation.
40、Return sludge pump room operating procedures
The switching on and off of the pump is controlled by the process requirements. The control of residual sludge and reflux sludge volume is mainly controlled automatically by the central control room according to the information transmitted from the detecting instrument. When the pump is put into use for the first time and when it is calibrated or further debugged in other ways, it can be operated manually and then transferred to the auto-control procedure after the debugging is completed.
When you need to manually operate the residual sludge pump or reflux sludge pump, first check the sludge level of the sludge tank, check the sludge pump is installed correctly, fasteners are not loose, the cable junction box is normal, whether the outlet gate is closed (except for the design of the other provisions), whether the flowmeter is normal, and then switch to switch to manual position, check the three-phase power supply voltage, the proposed temperature of the open motor, whether the humidity is normal, start the motor, listen to the pump machine Sound, monitor the voltage, ammeter, if the sound is normal.
After the current falls back, slowly open the water gate valve, according to the requirements of the process on the flow of control valve opening degree, monitor the voltage and current is in a reasonable range, report the control room boot time and check with the control room of the operating parameters, and can be transferred to the self-control operation, if the boot process found any irregularities shall not be booted, or has been booted should be immediately shut down to check the cause, troubleshooting before rebooting, but Re-starting must be done after the gate valve is closed and the motor is completely stopped for 5 minutes, and if the repeated start-up is still unsuccessful, it should be reported as equipment failure.
When manual shutdown operation is required, the control room should be notified to check whether the temperature and humidity of the motor are normal, close the water gate, switch the switch to manual position and shut down the motor.
41、Coagulant preparation
Coagulant preparation procedure is as follows: feed water into the dissolving tank to a certain amount → add quantitative chemicals into the dissolving tank at the same time → start stirring until completely dissolved → dissolving tank → continue to feed water to the required concentration of the liquid. (Detailed coagulant configuration operation steps by the supplier or the project city based on the actual situation to add.)
The dosage of coagulant should be adjusted according to the nature of sludge, degree of nitrification, sludge water content and other factors. The reserve quantity should be determined according to the type of coagulant, permitted storage validity period and storage conditions, etc. The coagulant should follow the principle of first stored first used at the same time.
42、Belt filter press inspection before startup
Including: coagulant dosing system (including metering pumps, coagulant configuration, level control system, piping systems and solvent tanks, etc.) with working conditions. Belt filter press (including filter belt, belt guiding device, driving device, backwash system, sludge feeding device, belt conveyor sludge transport vehicles and drainage system, etc.) with working conditions, start the belt filter press idling for several minutes to determine the absence of faults. Sludge dosing pump has working conditions. Power and automatic control system has the operating conditions
Ensure that the above checks are completed, you can start the sludge dewatering system, the start-up steps are: according to the sludge storage tank mud or according to the remaining sludge discharge sludge dewatering operations. Coagulant dosing. Start the belt filter press (including the backwash system and belt conveyor and the sludge transport vehicle). Start the sludge dosing pump, observe the operation of the dewatering machine and adjust the amount of sludge to be dosed, and adjust the coagulant dosage accordingly until the exported sludge reaches the water content standard. Detailed start-up operation steps shall be adjusted and supplemented by the supplier or the project city according to the actual situation. The ventilation of sludge dewatering room should be ensured after the system is put into operation.
43. Commissioning of frequency converter
Including:①Check before power-on: whether there is any error in the model specification of frequency converter. Whether there is any problem in the installation environment. Whether the connecting parts of the whole machine are loose, whether the connectors are inserted reliably, and whether they are dislodged and damaged. Whether the cable meets the requirements. Whether the electrical connection of the main circuit and control circuit is loose, and whether the grounding is reliable. Whether the external line of each grounding terminal is connected incorrectly, and whether the shielding wire connection meets the requirements. All external terminals and grounding terminals with 500V megohmmeter measurement, resistance should be more than 10M. Whether the main circuit power supply voltage is in accordance with the specified value. There is no metal or cable wire head and other foreign objects left in the box, clean up when necessary.
② Not connected to the motor, the inverter alone debugging: first disconnect all the operating switches. Frequency setting (i.e. speed setting), potentiometer to the minimum value. Turn on the main line power switch (generally internal cooling fan, panel and other control circuits, programme circuits, etc. are energized at the same time), wait a little while, check the circuits have no heat, odour, smoke and other phenomena, whether the indicator is normal. Check the parameters set by the inverter, you can modify or reset the data according to the actual requirements.
Give forward or reverse instruction, by rotating the frequency to the positioner, observe whether the frequency indication is correct. If the frequency display is not digital, if necessary, but also correct the frequency table.
③ Inverter with motor no-load operation: first disconnect all operating switches. Adjust the frequency setting potentiometer to the minimum value. Turn on the main power switch (fan, panel and other control circuits, programme circuits are energized at the same time). Give a forward or reverse instruction, first run at a few heats and observe whether the motor rotates in the correct direction. The general positive rotation instruction means that the motor rotates in a counterclockwise direction (referring to the end of the shaft).
If the motor rotates in the opposite direction, it is not necessary to reverse the phase sequence of the main circuit, and the direction of rotation can be changed by switching the wiring of the control terminals. Gradually increase the setting value, observe the motor operation when the frequency rises to the maximum value, and measure the speed and output voltage. After stopping the machine, check the position of the frequency setting potentiometer, and then observe whether the acceleration and deceleration operation is smooth and stable.
④ Inverter running with motor load: Turn on the main power switch. Change the parameter setting according to the actual requirement of the load. Under the instruction of positive rotation, gradually adjust the frequency setting potentiometer clockwise, the motor speed rises gradually, and at the same time, observe whether the rotating direction of the machinery is correct or not, if there is any error, change the wiring. When the potentiometer is turned right to the end, it should correspond to the highest frequency and speed. During the acceleration period, observe whether the machinery has any phenomena such as beat frequency and vibration.
Then turn the potentiometer anti-clockwise (left-handed), and the motor speed is gradually reduced until it stops. Note that when the given frequency is below the starting frequency, the motor should not rotate. Keeping the given maximum frequency (corresponding to the maximum speed), access the positive rotation command, the motor speed increases from the given acceleration time until the maximum speed runs steadily.
If there is an overload phenomenon during acceleration, the set acceleration time may be too short and should be adjusted. When the motor is running at full load, switch off the forward instruction signal and the motor will decelerate according to the set deceleration time until it stops. Under the reverse instruction, repeat items c,d and e for debugging. In operation, some set parameters can be changed, some are not allowed to change, should be carried out according to the operating instructions of different models of inverter.
44, sewage treatment plant overhaul work
Including mechanical equipment overhaul, monitoring instrumentation overhaul and correction, electrical equipment overhaul and sewage treatment structures overhaul. All overhaul work by the regular maintenance, fault repair and improvement of maintenance.
45. Periodic Overhaul
Is to prevent equipment accuracy, performance deterioration, affecting the normal production or reduce the failure rate, according to prior prediction and arrangement of the plan and the corresponding technical requirements of the overhaul activities, so also known as preventive maintenance.
46、Failure maintenance
Is in the use of equipment failure, accident or performance, accuracy reduced to the prescribed level below the restoration of the repair, also known as after the repair. This overhaul applies to the structure of simple equipment, low utilisation, repair technology requirements are not high, can provide timely spare parts, there is a substitute for the equipment, as well as the implementation of preventive maintenance is not economical equipment. Troubleshooting can be divided into the following two cases.
Planned control overhaul (daily maintenance, minor repairs or technical maintenance) based on daily inspection, inspection tours, regular inspections and other signs of failure found after analysis, according to the content of the need for repair, the complexity of the parts, the workload and the production of allowable downtime. This is carried out in close co-operation with the workshop production, both equipment can be restored to repair, but also to ensure normal production.
Sudden failure emergency repair: equipment failure occurred suddenly, without any prior signs, in order to resume production in a timely manner must be carried out unplanned emergency repair.
47, improve the maintenance
Is the existence of congenital defects or frequent failure of the equipment, its local structure or parts of the design, in combination with the repair to improve, in order to improve its reliability and overhaul of the measures. The difference between it and technological transformation is: the former is to improve and enhance the reliability of local parts and overhaul, in order to reduce equipment failure, reduce overhaul time and cost. The latter is mainly to improve the performance of the equipment or change the function of the equipment.

49. Monitoring indicators for operating parameters

The Operation Department arranges the category and frequency of laboratory indicators in the form of business contact sheets according to the production needs. Laboratory should test and analyse the operating parameters. Through the analysis of operating parameters, determine whether the sewage treatment plant is running normally, and timely feedback to the central control room of the sewage treatment plant, the central control room of the sewage treatment plant operation to make the necessary adjustments.
Municipal sewage treatment plant sewage sludge normal operation of the test items and cycles should be in accordance with the national standards of the Ministry of Construction CJJ60-94 implementation. See Table 6-1,Table 6-2.The laboratory data of routine laboratory items shall be fed back in the form of written report and electronic report before 9:00 a.m. every day. The data of the temporary increase of the test items should be submitted in writing to the production and operation department in order to analyse the process operation status and take preventive measures for possible problems.


50、Sampling container
Sampling containers should be composed of an inert material that is resistant to breakage, easy to clean, well sealed and easy to open and close. Sampling containers must ensure that samples are protected from adsorption, evaporation and contamination by foreign substances.
Sample bottles may be made of hard (boric acid) glass or high-pressure polyethylene. Potential problems with water samples and containers should be considered when selecting sample bottles to determine the type of container and the method of washing.
51. Sample Collection
In the sampling site will be used to containers (buckets or bottles) immersed in the wastewater to be sampled, so that full of water or mud-water mixture, removed and poured into the pre-prepared suitable sample containers can be. Sometimes the sample container can also be directly immersed in water sampling. Sampling, should be careful not to mix the substances floating on the water surface, the formal sampling before the water samples should be rinsed containers 2 to 3 times. The washed wastewater shall not be re-poured into the ditch, so as not to stir up the suspended matter in the water. The collected samples should be labelled in time. Fill in the sampling site record sheet. If the user export sampling by the sampling unit should be signed by the relevant personnel.
Sample collection process considerations: for stable pollutants, can be collected separately after the mixing of the sample once measured. For unstable pollutants, the pollutant concentration can be expressed as an average after separate sampling and separate measurement. The distribution of some components in wastewater is very uneven, such as oil and suspended solids, and some components are easily changed in the analysis, such as dissolved oxygen and sulphide.
If a sub-sample of wastewater is taken from the full-analysis sampling bottle for analysis of these items, erroneous results will be produced. Therefore, this type of monitoring project water samples should be collected separately, some should also be fixed in the field, respectively, for analysis. Sampling should be completed as required to fill out the sample site data sheet (see Appendix III, sample form 6-2-1) and sample preservation registration card (see Appendix III, sample form 6-2-3), water samples should be labelled with the above two sample form consistent.
52, sample preservation
Fill the container to overflow and seal the water sample
In order to avoid the sample in transit oscillation, as well as oxygen in the air, carbon dioxide on the container of sample components and items to be measured interference, for the pH, BOD, DO, etc., should be made to fill the container to the overflow of water samples and sealed preservation. But for the preparation of frozen samples can not fill the container, otherwise the water frozen ice, due to volume expansion caused by the container rupture.
Refrigeration: water samples should be refrigerated at a temperature lower than the temperature of the water samples when sampling, water samples collected immediately in the refrigerator or ice – water bath, placed in a dark place to save, generally in the 2 ~ 5 ℃ refrigeration, refrigeration is not suitable for long-term preservation of wastewater, the preservation time is even shorter.
Freezing (-20 ℃): generally can extend the storage period, but need to master the melting and freezing technology, so that the sample in the melting can be quickly and evenly restore the original state. When water samples freeze, they expand in volume, and plastic containers are generally chosen.
Add a protective agent (fixative or preservative): add some chemical reagents can be fixed in the water samples of some of the components to be measured, the protective agent should be added to the empty bottle beforehand, some can also be added to the water samples immediately after sampling.
Frequently used protective agents are a variety of acids, bases and biological inhibitors, the amount added varies according to need.
The added protective agent should not interfere with the determination of the components to be measured, if in doubt, the necessary experiments should be done first.
The added protective agent, because of its volume affects the initial concentration of the component to be measured, should be taken into account in the calculation of the results, but if you add a sufficiently concentrated protective agent; due to the addition of a very small volume can be ignored because of the dilution effect.
The added protective agent may change the chemical or physical properties of the components in the water, so the choice of protective agent must be taken into account when determining the impact of the project. If acidification causes the dissolution of colloidal components and solids suspended in particulate matter, the item to be measured must be preserved by acidification after filtration if it is a dissolved substance.
For the determination of certain items added to the fixative must be done blank test, such as the measurement of trace elements must be determined when the fixative can be introduced to the amount of the element to be measured. (E.g. acids can introduce non-negligible amounts of arsenic, lead, mercury.)
It must be noted that: some of the protective agent is toxic and harmful, such as mercury chloride (HgCl2), trichloromethane and acid, etc., in the use and storage must pay attention to the safety and security.
53, laboratory safety
Laboratory itself there are certain risk factors, but as long as the analysts strictly abide by the operating procedures and regulations, no matter what experiments should remember the safety first, often remain vigilant, the accident can be avoided. If preventive measures are reliable and accidents are handled properly, the damage can be minimised. For water quality monitoring laboratory safety knowledge, please refer to the relevant content in the Environmental Water Quality Monitoring Quality Assurance Manual. The following safety rules should be followed in daily laboratory work:
Heating volatile or flammable organic solvents, prohibit direct heating with a flame or circuit, must be carried out slowly in a water bath or electric hot plate; combustible substances such as gasoline, alcohol, paraffin and other things, not to be placed in gas lamps, electric stoves or other sources of ignition near the; when the heating distillation and related to the use of fire or electric work, at least one person on duty to manage the high-temperature electric furnace operation with good gloves;
Electric heating equipment used in the wire should always check whether the integrity of the electric heating equipment should be suitable pads; power switch should be installed in a strong cover, switch switch, never wet hands, and should be focused; highly toxic drugs must be developed for safekeeping, the use of the system should be set up a special cabinet and double double-locked custody; strong acids and ammonia are stored separately.
Strong acids and ammonia are stored separately; dilute sulfuric acid must be carefully and slowly pour sulfuric acid into water, not water into the sulfuric acid; pipette to absorb acids, alkalis and harmful substances, can not be sucked with the mouth, but must be sucked with a suction ear ball; pouring nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrofluoric acid, etc. must wear gloves to open the ethanol and ammonia and other volatile reagent bottles, can never be made the bottle mouth to themselves or others, especially in the summer when the It is very easy to be washed out when opening the bottle, which can cause serious accidents if you are not careful.
Disinfection and other harmful gas operations, must be carried out in the fume cupboard; operation of the centrifuge, must be completely stopped after the rotation can be opened; pressure vessels such as hydrogen cylinders must be away from fire, and parked properly; contact with sewage and drugs, should pay attention to wash their hands, hand wounds can not be contacted with sewage and drugs; laboratory should be equipped with fire-fighting equipment, such as sand buckets and tetrachlorocharcoal extinguishers, etc., sand buckets within the sand should be kept dry, not soaked in water. The sand in the sand bucket should be kept dry and should not be soaked in water; the laboratory should maintain air circulation, good lighting, clean environment, personal belongings and items not related to the laboratory should not be stored in the laboratory; at the end of each day’s work, water, electricity and other safety checks should be carried out; in winter, antifreezing measures should be carried out before the end of the work day to check.
54, the calibration curve test
Line test: the precision of the test curve. For 4 to 6 concentration units obtained by the measured signal value of the calibration curve, generally require its correlation coefficient | r ≧ 0.9990, or should find out the reasons for correction, re-draw a qualified test curve.
Intercept test: that is, the precision of the test calibration curve. Qualified in the linear test on the basis of its linear regression *, resulting in the regression equation y = a + bx. Then the resulting intercept a and 0 for t-test, when taking the 95% confidence level, the test is not significantly different, a can be done when 0 processing, the equation is simplified to y = bx, shifted to x = y / b. Within the linear range, instead of consulting the calibration curve, the sample measurement signal is directly corrected for the blank, the sample concentration is calculated. Calculate the sample concentration.
When a and there is a significant difference, that is to say, on behalf of the calibration curve to calculate the regression equation is not accurate, should find out why and be corrected, redraw the calibration curve and qualified by the linearity test, and then calculate the regression equation, after the intercept test is qualified and put into use.
Regression equation, such as the above test and processing, that is, directly into use, will certainly introduce a systematic error to the measurement results of the difference between the equivalent and the intercept a.
Slope test: i.e. test the sensitivity of the analytical method. The sensitivity of the method is with the change of experimental conditions. Under identical analytical conditions, the change in slope due only to random errors in operation should not exceed a certain permissible range, which varies according to the precision of the analytical method. For example, in general, molecular absorption spectrophotometry requires that the relative error is less than 5%; and atomic spectrophotometry requires that the relative error value is less than 10% and so on.
55, the standard substance comparative analysis
Quantitative value transfer: the laboratory prepared samples or control samples, etc., through the comparison with the standard reference material, check their concentration value of the error and be corrected.
Instrument calibration: For instruments using direct quantitative methods, the standard reference material is used to calibrate the instrument.
Comparison analysis: In the analysis of the specimen at the same time, with a similar concentration of the standard reference or its dilution for analysis, according to the measured value of the standard reference and the degree of conformity with the guaranteed value, to determine the accuracy of the specimen analysis results are acceptable or not.
Quality assessment: using the standard reference material as an unknown sample to assess the technical level of the analysts in the laboratory or the degree of conformity of the results of inter-laboratory analyses, so as to help analysts to identify problems and ensure the comparability of inter-laboratory data.
56, accident plan
Should include: accident alarm, emergency response, accident investigation, responsibility for handling, accident prevention (engineering and technical measures, educational measures, management measures), accident reporting, accident information communication (within a certain range of notification, lessons learned, to prevent accidents). Participants in each step of the accident plan should be clearly defined in the accident plan (and should contain emergency contact information, etc.), such as accident investigation by the technical person in charge and the head of the department to complete.
57. Failure of electrical machinery and equipment
Accident Alarm: Electrical equipment and mechanical equipment alarms include automatic alarm device alarms and operators in the inspection process to find equipment failure alarms, found that the accident alarm should be immediately reported to the central control room, the central control room in the receipt of the accident alarm should immediately begin to deal with. Immediately after the equipment accident alarm, stop the operation of the alarm equipment and open the standby equipment to maintain normal operation.
The operator goes to the scene of the alarm equipment to adjust the processing. If there is no standby equipment for the alarm equipment, adjust the operating parameters of the upstream and downstream processes immediately after stopping the operation, and immediately notify the person in charge of the duty to strengthen monitoring and send operators to the alarm equipment to adjust the parameters.
Emergency treatment: After arriving at the site of the equipment alarm, the operator should immediately investigate and troubleshoot the problem and check the performance of the equipment. If the equipment is damaged, it should be reported to the person in charge of the shift to jointly confirm and notify the maintenance personnel to overhaul the equipment.
Accident investigation: after the completion of emergency treatment of the accident, an accident investigation group should be formed by the technical person in charge, the person in charge of the shift and the operator of the shift to investigate the cause of the accident and fill in the accident investigation form, which should be copied to the Power Maintenance Department and the office of the plant manager after the completion of the accident investigation form.
Responsibility: After the completion of the investigation of the cause of the accident, the person in charge of technology should be based on the cause of the accident caused by the accident to pursue the responsibility of the relevant personnel to put forward a written proposal for responsibility treatment, sent to the office of the plant manager. By the plant manager to make a written decision on the responsibility of the accident and posted on the bulletin board in the plant.
Accident prevention: accident prevention should be carried out from three aspects, such as engineering and technical measures, educational measures and management measures, etc. The accident prevention programme should be summarized by the person in charge of technology and finally form a written report, which will be decided by the plant manager and put into practice.
Accident report: Accident report includes accident investigation, accident responsibility treatment and accident prevention and other three aspects of the written report. Accident reports are collated and filed by the Power Maintenance Department.
Accident information conveyance: notify in a certain range, learn the lessons and prevent accidents from happening.
58、What to do in case of notification of power failure
Within 15 minutes after receiving the notice of blackout, all the running orders should be withdrawn. That is, shut down the equipment in operation. (Note down the number of equipment in operation, so that the incoming call to resume normal operation).
After the equipment stops running, disconnect the communication cable between the PC and PLC, and then notify the electrician to issue a power failure signal.
If the power outage needs more than half an hour or more, you should turn off all the PLC and its corresponding UPS power supply. To avoid over-discharge of UPS affects its service life.
After the incoming power supply, the PLC station should be re-powered, and one by one so that the CPU reset, connect the PC and PLC0 communication cable (at this time, the PC should have been in the Windows 95 platform), start the T800DDE check the communication, if the dynamic scanning is normal, and then re-start the INTOUCH Windows Viewer, and check the connection between the PLC station communication. If the dynamic scanning is normal, then restart INTOUCH Windows Viewer and check the connection and communication between PLC stations.
59、In case of abnormal power failure, how to
Firstly, check whether the communication loop between PC and each PLC station is smooth, and whether the CPU of each PLC station works normally. If normal, immediately ask the reason for the power failure, how long it takes to restore power supply, if the power failure time is greater than half an hour or more, should be turned off the PLC station UPS, PC at the same time out of the monitoring system. If the power supply is restored soon, the operator should check the interface “20” immediately after the power supply is restored to see whether the PLC stations and communication loop are normal.
If the communication system display is normal, the operator can carry out other operation tasks.
If the communication system is dead or partially dead, the PLC station that has been dead should be reset respectively. (One method, cut off the power supply, wait a moment, and then close the power supply; another method, use a stick jumper to press the Reset button on the CPU, forcing the CPU to reload the programme).
If everything is normal then resume running operations.
In order to avoid the load brought by the incoming call to start at the same time, before the power supply requires the electrician through the MCC cabinet screen on the transfer switch to release the existing operation command, try to make the system after the incoming call to reduce the start-up load. In order to avoid excessive start-up load causing the power supply system to flash down protection.
60, material acceptance
Acceptance of materials, including vouchers, delivery time acceptance, material quantity acceptance, material quality acceptance, accessories, special tools, product drawings and manuals and operation and maintenance manuals and price acceptance and other work. Acceptance of materials should be based on the procurement contract, acceptance should be completed jointly by the relevant procurement staff and inventory management personnel. If necessary, the technical person in charge, the head of the laboratory and the person in charge of maintenance should be invited to jointly acceptance.
The procedure of acceptance inspection is as follows: preparation for acceptance → testing → storage → recording process.
61、Storage of materials
According to the characteristics of the materials to be preserved, combined with the local objective conditions and supplement the necessary measures to meet the storage environment and the development of management methods. Laboratory reagents, drugs and low-value consumables, should be handed over to the laboratory storage and management by the laboratory, while the laboratory should regularly report to the warehouse management personnel to save the situation. The main points of the management of materials in the warehouse are:
(1) Quantity is accurate: the incoming materials should be measured and registered on the material registration card and signed. , so that the account card is consistent and the quantity is accurate.
(2) clear specifications, fixed position: inventory materials should be stored according to categories and specifications, marked clearly, so as not to be dirty and not chaotic; precision instruments and equipment and valuable materials special library lock; small pieces of material to be placed in five or five to facilitate the count, a large number of materials in batches of neat storage; flammable and explosive, highly toxic drugs, to be double double-locked library according to the regulations of the separate custody; recycling of waste materials and purchases should be strictly separated from the materials. The principle of material distribution is the first warehouse first use.
(3) library neat: often clean, keep clean, materials placed neatly and beautifully, with “zoning classification, four positioning, card, card, five-five placement” of the scientific method of management.
(4) Carefully manage the temperature and humidity of the air in the warehouse, open and close the doors and windows according to the performance characteristics and climatic characteristics of the materials, and use all kinds of equipment that can control and regulate the temperature and humidity, so as to maintain the best environment for the materials.
(5) anti-mould, anti-pest, anti-rodent work should be regular, if necessary, the use of pharmaceutical anti-mould, kill pests and rats.
(6) Do a good job of fire prevention, waterproofing, anti-theft work, when off duty to stop the electricity, cease fire and close the doors and windows, pay special attention to the spontaneous combustion conditions can be spontaneous combustion of goods, to prevent the occurrence of fires, if the installation of anti-theft alarms should be checked to see if they are working properly.
(7) inventory of warehouse materials, regular inspection and inventory of inventory materials, if there is a shortage of materials or damage, deterioration, obsolescence, failure of inventory to indicate the amount, while included in the pending property. At the same time to identify the cause of the loss and responsibility and after the approval of the plant manager, according to the cause and responsibility to deal with the cancellation of accounts.
62, sewage treatment plant safety management
The following principles should be followed:
a) sewage treatment plant in the daily operation and maintenance process of safety management must conscientiously implement the “safety first, prevention first” policy for the work to create safe and hygienic working conditions, to provide workers with the necessary labour protective equipment in line with national regulations, to achieve safe and civilized production.
b) The wastewater treatment plant shall take all possible measures to comprehensively strengthen safety management, safety technology and safety education to prevent accidents.
c)In addition to implementing and enforcing these regulations, the sewage treatment plant must also simultaneously and strictly implement the laws, regulations, rules and standards on occupational safety and health formulated by the relevant state departments and local people’s governments.
d) In the process of safety management to implement the responsibility system, the legal representative of the enterprise is the first person responsible for production safety, production safety is responsible for the overall leadership. And establish a production safety committee with the first person responsible for production safety as the core.
e) Everyone is responsible for production safety, enterprise employees must conscientiously perform their respective production safety duties, to do their duty, each responsible for their own.
f) the whole factory workers, including contract workers, temporary workers should firmly establish the “safety first, prevention-oriented” idea, in their respective positions, the safety of their respective duties, each responsible for their own responsibilities, and seriously do a good job of security and safety precautions.
g) The new workers entering the factory and the post transfer personnel in the factory must be qualified by the factory safety education examination before entering the production post. They must be trained by the factory to obtain the post qualification certificate before they are allowed to operate on the job.
h)No alcohol is allowed to be consumed before going to work, and the labour protective gear must be worn according to the post regulations before going to work.
i) During the working period, you must stick to your position, and you are not allowed to hand over your work to others instead without the approval of the leaders.
j) All changes, including process changes, equipment changes, management changes, operator changes, changes must be involved in the change of personnel change training to ensure safe operation after the change.
k) The rotating parts of all mechanical equipment must be set up with intact guards or guard rails, and operators must prevent their hair, clothes and cuffs from being strangled and injured when operating or approaching these parts. Areas such as high-voltage transformer and distribution rooms should be strictly prohibited from entry by unrelated personnel.
l) all pool walkway should be set up to protect the railing, rain, snow, ice climate should pay special attention to prevent slipping into the pool.
m) All kinds of protective devices of the equipment, alarm devices must be complete, accurate, sensitive and effective before use.
n)The production area inside and outside the workshop should be protected and tidy to ensure that the safety channel and safety doors are unobstructed.
o) All kinds of safety facilities such as fire hydrant, fire hose, fire extinguisher, chlorine detector, chlorine absorption device, gas mask, gloves, first-aid supplies, etc. should be kept in good performance, and shall not be moved arbitrarily, and shall be replenished in a timely manner in case of emergency after use.
p) All kinds of motor vehicles travelling on the main roads in the plant area shall not exceed 20 kilometres per hour, and the speed of vehicles entering and leaving the gate and plant shall not exceed 5 kilometres per hour.
q)Continuous production post workers should strictly abide by the shift handover system, non-continuous work post workers should cut off the power supply, fire source, gas source when they leave work, tidy up the site and close the doors and windows to ensure that the site is safe before leaving.
r) When an accident occurs, it should be dealt with immediately according to the accident plan, and if the accident plan fails to include the accident, it should be dealt with according to the similar accident plan recently, and if a personal accident occurs, it should be rescued immediately and the scene should be protected, and the accident should be reported to the factory in time. Accident clean-up shall not be carried out without the consent of the accident investigation team. For minor accidents, the factory shall report to the company within 4 hours, and for major accidents or fatal accidents, the factory shall immediately report verbally to the deputy general manager in charge of the company.
s) to visit the factory, study the guests or groups, should be agreed by the company, the factory accompanied by someone, each guest into the factory must be wearing a visit card, return the visit card from the factory, register the visit in and out of the factory time. Into the factory to contact the work of the gate to contact by phone, the receptionist agreed to receive a guest card into the factory, do the job by the receptionist in the guest card on the signature, return the guest card, by the gate to verify the departure of the factory.
t) Each business administration department, such as: environmental protection, industrial labour, fire, power supply, news media and other professional inspection personnel to the factory, should be approved by the company issued by the inspection card, indicating the inspection of the professional, by the factory department related professionals to receive, report and accompany the inspection.
u) The factory shall have working relationship with the outside world through the company and rely on the company to prevent and control the unsafe factors caused by the outside world to the factory.
v)For all the workers in the plant, the safety responsibility within the production responsibility of each person shall be borne by that person at the same time, so each person is in charge of production as well as safety, and the production management system is the safety management system, and the director of the plant shall bear the responsibility for the safety of the whole plant, and the subcontroller shall bear the direct responsibility, and the operator shall bear the specific safety responsibility.
w) the whole plant in the production work inspection found in the safety hazards to fill in the report, safety hazards using a matter of a table, in duplicate, a file, see appendix III, sample table 10-1-1 proposed rectification, by the assistant director of the plant in charge of the organisation of the implementation and acceptance of the cancellation of the case. The factory is difficult to solve the major hidden dangers, to make a special report to the company’s deputy general manager in charge of the report, to assist the company to carry out special inspections and technical appraisal, the development of rectification plans to implement and acceptance of the cancellation of the case.
x) small accidents investigated and handled by the plant (where not caused by sewage treatment full flow shutdown and direct economic losses less than 1,000 yuan of production accidents and minor injuries caused by the loss of 2 days less than 3 days for small accidents) other accidents are reported to the company to deal with.
y) after the accident, regardless of the size of the accident, the plant should be organised to investigate the relevant professionals to fill in the “Accident Registration Form” (see Appendix III, sample form 10-1-2), small accidents by the plant to fill in the “Safety Accident Investigation Report” (see Appendix III, sample form 10-1-3), and do the aftermath of the accident, as well as on the responsible person’s disciplinary action, archiving and copying to the company, the big accidents are responsible for filling in the “Safety Accident Investigation Report”, according to the company to fill out the “Safety Accident Investigation Report”, and to report to the company. Safety Accident Investigation Report” by the company, and handle the accident according to the company’s instruction.

63, the use of PAM management regulations
PAM fixed point sealed storage; PAM should be clearly marked; transport, storage, and dosage process, the operator must wear protective equipment.
64, the use of liquid chlorine management regulations
Liquid chlorine should be used in the process of strict compliance with the following provisions.
a, the use of chlorine must obtain the approval of public security, labour, environmental protection and other departments.
b, the use of personnel must be qualified by professional training, examination, and obtain a special operating certificate.
c, the use of the site should be equipped with repair equipment according to the following table.
d, the use of the site should be equipped with protective gear according to the following table.
e. Before working, the chlorination room should be forced to pass 5-10 minutes, so that the chlorine content in the air in the workshop is lower than the maximum permissible concentration of 1mg/m3.
f. The connecting gaskets at the chlorine gas interface should be made of asbestos sheet, asbestos rubber sheet, fluoroplastic, graphite-impregnated asbestos rope, etc. The use of rubber gaskets is strictly prohibited.
g. Cylinders must have a technical inspection certificate and be within the validity period.
h. Cylinders must be weighed and fitted with diaphragm pressure gauges, regulating valves and other devices.
i, it is strictly prohibited to oil, cotton yarn and other flammable substances and chlorine easy to react with the goods in the vicinity of the chlorine cylinder.
j. Annealed copper pipe should be used to connect the cylinder, and the purple steel pipe should be qualified by the pressure resistance test.
If the pipe is clogged, it should be unblocked with steel wire and flushing with water is not allowed.
k、Apply special cylinder opening spanner, open the bottle valve should be operated slowly, and should not be closed with excessive force or forceful closure, and should not be struck with hammer or scalded with boiling water; l. The cylinder must be closed immediately after operation.
l, the bottle valve must be closed immediately after the end of the operation, operation in the event of a power failure, immediately close the bottle valve to avoid the return of water; m, the cylinder is not allowed to be stored in the open air.
m, cylinders are prohibited open storage, not sun exposure, not near the heat source, should be stored in a special warehouse.
n, empty bottles and full bottles must be listed, placed separately, prohibit mixing.
o. The storage period of full bottles shall not exceed three months.
p. 500Kg and 1000Kg cylinders should be placed horizontally, leaving the channel, when handling, must wear a good bottle cap, anti-vibration ring, is strictly prohibited impact.
q. Leakage and equipment should be eliminated in a timely manner, chlorine leakage, should be immediately evacuated from unrelated personnel, rescue the poisoned, repair and rescue personnel must wear effective protective masks, should be immediately forced to ventilate or open the chlorine suction device to reduce the concentration of chlorine gas pollution;; and
r. Protective equipments should be checked regularly and replaced on schedule.
65、Principle of judgement of waste
The judgement of the abandonment of protective equipment should follow the following principles: does not meet the national standards or professional standards; does not meet the higher labour protection inspection agencies in accordance with the relevant standards and regulations set out in the functional indicators. In the use or custody of the storage period was damaged, or more than the effective use of the period, the test does not meet the original provisions of the minimum indicators of effective protective functions.
66, judge the end of the procedure
The procedure of scrapping the protective equipment is: the safety and technology institutions in the enterprise will carry out regular or irregular sampling and inspection of the labour protective equipment in the enterprise every year, and the ones that need technical appraisal will be sent to the state-authorized labour protective equipment inspection station for inspection. A decision will be made on the disposal of the labour protective equipment. Labour protective equipments are prohibited to be used as labour protective equipments after scrapping.
67、Factory director (manager) safety responsibilities
a) the enterprise is fully responsible for production safety, to firmly establish the “safety first” idea.
b) Strictly implement the guidelines, policies, laws, regulations, rules and standards of the state and the higher level on work safety, and accept safety education, training and assessment.
c) Establish and implement a full production safety responsibility system.
d) Establish and improve the specialised management institutions for production safety, and fill up the full-time safety and technical management personnel. Regularly listen to safety reports, and decide important rewards and punishments for safety work.
e) preside over the production safety committee meeting, study and solve major problems in production safety. The unit is unable to solve the major hidden accidents, to the relevant departments at higher levels to submit a timely report.
f)Finalise the production safety planning and annual plan, and determine the production safety objectives. Issue safety rules and regulations, safety technical regulations, and job operation methods. Approve major safety and technical measures projects, effectively ensure financial investment in production safety, and continuously improve the occupational safety and health situation of the enterprise and the working conditions of the labourers.
g) Adhere to the principle of “five simultaneous” production safety, i.e. when planning, arranging, checking, summarising and evaluating production, we also plan, arrange, check, summarise and evaluate the safety work at the same time.
h) Contracting at all levels within the enterprise, as well as contracting contracts with outside organisations, must have production safety responsibilities, safety management requirements and safety technology indicators and other provisions, and seriously assess the implementation.
i) Major accidents must be reported immediately in accordance with relevant regulations. Accident handling should adhere to the principle of “four spares” (the cause of the accident is not investigated and not spared, the person responsible for the accident is not seriously dealt with and not spared, the majority of workers are not educated and not spared, and preventive measures are not implemented and not spared).
j) Deputy factory director (deputy manager) in the factory director (manager) designated within the scope of work on production safety is responsible for.
k)Checking and assessing the implementation of the system of responsibility for production safety of the same level of deputy and the head of the unit to which it belongs.
l)In the absence of the factory director (manager), the acting person shall fulfil the factory director’s (manager’s) responsibility for production safety.
m)Report annually to the workers’ congress on production safety and industrial hygiene.
68. Workers’ safety duties:
a)Participate in safety activities, learn safety technology knowledge, and strictly abide by all rules and regulations.
b)Carefully implement the shift handover system, and before taking over the shift, must carefully check whether the equipment and safety facilities of the post and the work and instruments are complete and intact.
c) Observe the discipline, operate carefully, and strictly implement the process regulations, safety and technical regulations and operation law. Records are clear, true, neat, and keep the workplace clean.
d)Inspect on time, accurately analyse, judge and deal with abnormal situations in the production process.
e)Carefully maintain the equipment, find abnormalities should be properly dealt with, timely report, and carefully make records.
f) Properly use and properly store all kinds of labour protection supplies, instruments and protective and fire-fighting equipment.
g) Do not work against the rules, and dissuade or stop others from working against the rules; have the right to refuse to carry out the command against the rules, and report to the leadership in time.
69、Process piping system
Including sewage pipeline, water pipeline, sludge pipeline, compressed air pipeline and chemical dosing pipeline and its control gates and valves on the pipeline system.
70、Daily inspection of process piping system
Contents include: whether the pipeline leakage phenomenon; gates and valves are effective, especially whether the electric gate is damp failure; pipeline support and fixing; pipeline system corrosion is good; self-flowing pipeline should be opened to check the siltation of the well cover.

71, process piping system routine maintenance work includes:

a) daily cleaning of piping and supporting and fixing system.
b)Tightening of piping and supporting and fixing system;
c) Lubrication.
d) corrosion protection of pipework and supporting and fixing systems; and
e) Dredging of storm sewers, if necessary.
Overhaul of process piping systems:
Work such as overhaul or replacement of pipes, supports, gates and valves etc. according to different piping systems as per plan and actual conditions.
72, rainwater and sewage collection system
Rainwater system refers to the rainwater collection system within the scope of the sewage treatment plant, including rainwater wells and rainwater collection pipelines; sewage system refers to the sewage collection system within the scope of the sewage treatment plant.
Rainwater, sewage collection system daily inspection work includes: collection pipeline silt depth; rainwater collection wells and sewage collection well cover and well body intact; pipe corrosion.
Rainwater and sewage collection system daily maintenance work includes: pipeline desilting; rainwater collection wells and sewage inspection wells broken well cover replacement.
73、Solid Waste Management
Should follow the principle of reducing the generation of solid waste, full and reasonable use of solid waste and harmless treatment of solid waste.
Wastewater treatment plant solid waste management regulations: domestic solid waste is centralised (dumpster), sent to the local sanitation centralised collection and treatment; the plant’s sewage pipeline desilting of the silt produced should be sent to the intake pumping station suction pond; desilting silt to prevent pollution of the environment in the process of transporting;.


Phosphonates Antiscalants, Corrosion Inhibitors and Chelating Agents
Amino Trimethylene Phosphonic Acid (ATMP) CAS No. 6419-19-8
1-Hydroxy Ethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP) CAS No. 2809-21-4
Ethylene Diamine Tetra (Methylene Phosphonic Acid) EDTMPA (Solid) CAS No. 1429-50-1
Diethylene Triamine Penta (Methylene Phosphonic Acid) (DTPMPA) CAS No. 15827-60-8
2-Phosphonobutane -1,2,4-Tricarboxylic Acid (PBTC) CAS No. 37971-36-1
2-Hydroxy Phosphonoacetic Acid (HPAA) CAS No. 23783-26-8
HexaMethyleneDiamineTetra (MethylenePhosphonic Acid) HMDTMPA CAS No. 23605-74-5
Polyamino Polyether Methylene Phosphonic Acid(PAPEMP)
Bis(HexaMethylene Triamine Penta (Methylene Phosphonic Acid)) BHMTPMP CAS No. 34690-00-1
Hydroxyethylamino-Di(Methylene Phosphonic Acid) (HEMPA) CAS No. 5995-42-6
Salts of Phosphonates
Tetra sodium salt of Amino Trimethylene Phosphonic Acid (ATMP•Na4) CAS No. 20592-85-2
Penta sodium salt of Amino Trimethylene Phosphonic Acid (ATMP•Na5) CAS No. 2235-43-0
Mono-sodium of 1-Hydroxy Ethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP•Na) CAS No. 29329-71-3
Disodium Salt of 1-Hydroxy Ethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP•Na2) CAS No. 7414-83-7
Tetra Sodium Salt of 1-Hydroxy Ethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP•Na4) CAS No. 3794-83-0
Potassium salt of 1-Hydroxy Ethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP•K2) CAS No. 21089-06-5
Ethylene Diamine Tetra (Methylene Phosphonic Acid) Pentasodium Salt (EDTMP•Na5) CAS No. 7651-99-2
Hepta sodium salt of Diethylene Triamine Penta (Methylene Phosphonic Acid) (DTPMP•Na7) CAS No. 68155-78-2
Sodium salt of Diethylene Triamine Penta (Methylene Phosphonic Acid) (DTPMP•Na2) CAS No. 22042-96-2
2-Phosphonobutane -1,2,4-Tricarboxylic Acid, Sodium salt (PBTC•Na4) CAS No. 40372-66-5
Potassium Salt of HexaMethyleneDiamineTetra (MethylenePhosphonic Acid) HMDTMPA•K6 CAS No. 53473-28-2
Partially neutralized sodium salt of bis hexamethylene triamine penta (methylene phosphonic acid) BHMTPH•PN(Na2) CAS No. 35657-77-3
Polycarboxylic Antiscalant and Dispersant
Polyacrylic Acid (PAA) 50% 63% CAS No. 9003-01-4
Polyacrylic Acid Sodium Salt (PAAS) 45% 90% CAS No. 9003-04-7
Hydrolyzed Polymaleic Anhydride (HPMA) CAS No. 26099-09-2
Copolymer of Maleic and Acrylic Acid (MA/AA) CAS No. 26677-99-6
Acrylic Acid-2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropane Sulfonic Acid Copolymer (AA/AMPS) CAS No. 40623-75-4
TH-164 Phosphino-Carboxylic Acid (PCA) CAS No. 71050-62-9
Biodegradable Antiscalant and Dispersant
Sodium of Polyepoxysuccinic Acid (PESA) CAS No. 51274-37-4
CAS No. 109578-44-1
Sodium Salt of Polyaspartic Acid (PASP) CAS No. 181828-06-8
CAS No. 35608-40-6
Biocide and Algicide
Benzalkonium Chloride(Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl ammonium Chloride) CAS No. 8001-54-5,
CAS No. 63449-41-2,
CAS No. 139-07-1
Isothiazolinones CAS No. 26172-55-4,
CAS No. 2682-20-4
Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate(THPS) CAS No. 55566-30-8
Corrosion Inhibitors
Sodium salt of Tolyltriazole (TTA•Na) CAS No. 64665-57-2
Tolyltriazole (TTA) CAS No. 29385-43-1
Sodium salt of 1,2,3-Benzotriazole (BTA•Na) CAS No. 15217-42-2
1,2,3-Benzotriazole (BTA) CAS No. 95-14-7
Sodium salt of 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT•Na) CAS No. 2492-26-4
2-Mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) CAS No. 149-30-4
Oxygen Scavenger
Cyclohexylamine CAS No. 108-91-8
Morpholine CAS No. 110-91-8
Sodium Diethylhexyl Sulfosuccinate CAS No. 1639-66-3
Acetyl chloride CAS No. 75-36-5
TH-GC Green Chelating Agent (Glutamic Acid,N,N-diacetic Acid, Tetra Sodium Salt) CAS No. 51981-21-6

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