January 20, 2021 Longchang Chemical

What are the appropriate first aid measures if an accident occurs accidentally during the experiment?

1. Glass cuts and other mechanical damage: First, check whether there are glass or metal fragments in the wound, then wash it with boric acid water, then rub iodine or purple syrup, and if necessary, wrap it with gauze. Solemn reminder that if the wound is too deep or large and causes a lot of bleeding, you should quickly tie up the blood vessels on the upper and lower parts of the wound to stop the bleeding, and go to the hospital for treatment immediately.

2. Burns: Generally, after disinfection with concentrated (90%-95%) alcohol, apply picric acid ointment. If the wound is red, painful or swollen (first-degree burns), use olive oil or cotton moistened with alcohol to cover the wound; if the skin is blistering (secondary burns), do not break the blisters to prevent infection; the skin on the chrome wound is brown Or black (third degree burns), should be gently wrapped with dry and sterile sterile gauze, and sent to hospital for treatment.

3. When strong alkalis (such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide), sodium, potassium, etc. touch the skin and cause burns, first rinse with a large amount of tap water, and then wash with 5% acetic acid solution or 2% acetic acid solution.

4. When strong acid, bromine, etc. touch the skin and cause burns, immediately rinse with a large amount of tap water, and then wash with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution or 5% ammonium hydroxide solution.

5. If phenol touches the skin and causes burns, it should be washed with plenty of water, and washed with soap and water, and ethanol should not be used.

6. If the carrier gas is poisoned, you should go outside to breathe fresh air. If it is severe, you should go to the hospital for treatment immediately.

7. Mercury easily enters the human body from the respiratory tract, and can also be directly absorbed through the skin to cause cumulative poisoning. Signs of severe poisoning are metal odor in the mouth and smell of exhaled air; saliva, black mercury sulfide on the gums and lips; swelling of lymph glands and salivary glands. If you are accidentally poisoned, you should be sent to hospital for emergency treatment. In acute poisoning, gastric lavage is usually done with toner or vomiting agent, or by ingesting protein (such as 1 liter of milk plus 3 egg whites) or castor oil to detoxify and vomit.

How do we deal with poisoning in the laboratory?

1. Strong acid (lethal dose 1ml)

1). When a strong acid is swallowed by mistake, the patient should immediately drink milk or magnesium oxide suspension, or aluminum hydroxide gel to dilute the corrosive. It is strictly forbidden to lavage the patient’s stomach or induce vomiting, and then send the patient to the hospital immediately.

2). Take the time to deal with it on the spot to eliminate or reduce the acid on clothes and skin-rinse with plenty of water to dilute the acid concentration as much as possible to reduce the degree of damage. As soon as strong acid touches the human body, it will burn the skin immediately and penetrate deep tissues. The principle of strong acid burns human skin is mainly that it will dehydrate the skin tissue, causing protein denaturation and coagulation necrosis in the skin tissue. Therefore, if the human skin has a small amount of strong acid, it is best to rinse with a large amount of flowing water in the shortest time. Of course, during the rinsing process, try not to let the strong acid expand the area of the damaged skin. If the neutralizer is used for the first time to neutralize, it will increase the injury, because the neutralization will release a large amount of heat in a short time, and the heat temperature is generally above 100 ℃. If there is a lot of strong acid on your clothes, don’t take it off rashly. Otherwise, the burn area may be enlarged and the skin may be torn off. It is best to use scissors to cut the clothes.

3) When it enters the eyes, open the eyelids and wash with water for 15 minutes.

2. Strong alkali (lethal dose 1 gram)

1). When swallowing, immediately observe with an esophagoscopy, and directly wash the affected area with 1% acetic acid aqueous solution to neutrality. Then, quickly drink 500 ml of dilute edible vinegar (1 part of edible vinegar and 4 parts of water) or fresh orange juice to dilute it.

2). Take off your clothes immediately. After a strong alkali burn, rinse with clean water for a longer time. Generally, you don’t need a neutralizer. However, if it is stained with quicklime, use oil or the like to remove the quicklime first, because the quicklime reacts chemically with water and generates a lot of heat and burns the skin.

3) When it enters the eyes, open the eyelids and wash them with water for 15 minutes.

3. Ammonia

1)Because there was an ammonia leak in the room, we immediately left the laboratory and moved the patient to a ventilated place in the corridor outside to ensure air circulation.

2)Since ammonia has entered the eyes, it will cause great damage to the eyes. Therefore, we immediately find a dilute boric acid solution that can wash the eyes to wash the eyes of the patient. At this time, let the patient lie down and use it first. Wash the cornea with water for at least 5 minutes, and then wash it with a dilute boric acid solution.

3)We have completed the emergency measures. The next step is to wait for the medical staff to take the treatment measures. As ammonia can damage the human respiratory tract and mucous membranes, we must pay attention to whether the patient’s breathing is obstructed. If so, conditions permit If the condition is not allowed, we should assist the patient with ventilation, ensure air circulation, remove the buttons on the patient’s clothing, and try to make the patient breathe smoothly.

4. Halogen gas

Move the patient to a place with fresh air and keep quiet. When inhaling chlorine, smell the mixed vapor of 11 ether and ethanol; if inhaling bromine, smell dilute ammonia.

5. Cyanide (a lethal dose of 0.05 grams)

Anyway, deal with it immediately. Every two minutes, inhale isoamyl nitrite to the patient for 15 to 30 seconds. Then give him a thiosulfate solution. Combine it with cyanide dissociated from cyanomethemoglobin to generate thiocyanate.

1) When inhalation occurs, move the patient to a place with fresh air and no cyanide, and make him lie down. Then, take off the cyanide clothes and give artificial respiration immediately according to the situation.

2) In case of accidental swallowing, rub the patient’s throat with fingers to induce vomiting. Never wait for the gastric lavage tool to arrive.

3) Amyl nitrite should be inhaled quickly, and sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, cystine, and hydroxycobalt ammonium should be injected intravenously for first aid.

6. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide gas

Move the patient to a place with fresh air and keep quiet. When it gets into the eyes, wash with plenty of water and rinse your throat.

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