June 17, 2024 Longchang Chemical

Dibutyl oxalate CAS 2050-60-4

Other Name: DIBUTYL OXALATE; Dibutyl ethanedioate; ETHANEDIOIC ACID DIBUTYL ESTER; OXALIC ACID DI-N-BUTYL ESTER; Butyl ethanedioate; Dibutyl ester of oxalic acid; Dibutylethanedionate; Oxalic acid, dibutyl ester

Item Indicator
Appearance Colorless oily liquid
Molecular weight 202.25
Melting point -29℃
Boiling point 240℃
Density 0.986g/cm3 (25℃)
Flash Point 109℃

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Nylon (PA), as one of the most commonly used engineering plastics, has higher mechanical properties and heat resistance than general-purpose plastics, as well as excellent abrasion resistance, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, electrical insulation and ease of processing, etc., and is widely used in automotive, mechanical and other engineering fields.


In all kinds of automotive parts, compared with polypropylene (PP), PA is more often used in parts with higher performance requirements, such as engine peripheral parts, various pipelines, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to modify PA to enhance the mechanical properties and heat resistance of PA, and to make PA obtain more functional properties, so as to make it better meet the requirements of all kinds of structural and functional parts of the automobile applications.

Most of the modification of PA is physical modification, including fiber reinforced modification, inorganic particle filling modification, blending modification, foam modification, etc. For high temperature resistant PA, copolymerization modification is also a commonly used modification method.


Research on the modification technology of general-purpose PA for automobiles

Fiber Reinforcement Modification


Fiber reinforced modification is the most commonly used modification technology, its main purpose is to enhance the mechanical properties of PA, the reinforcing fibers used are mainly glass fiber (GF) and carbon fiber (CF). The mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced PA are closely related to the type, length, content of fibers and the interfacial bonding state of fibers and PA, and are also strongly influenced by the preparation process. Compared with short fibers, continuous fibers and fiber braids enhance the mechanical properties of PA more, but their preparation process is more complicated, and the adequate impregnation of continuous fibers and fiber braids with PA resin is the key factor for the successful preparation of these fiber-reinforced modified PA composites.


Compared with short fibers, continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites have higher comprehensive mechanical properties, and have become a research hotspot and development focus in the fields of automobile manufacturing, rail transportation and aerospace.


Compared with single fiber, fiber braid can reinforce thermoplastic composites in two or three dimensions, and compared with thermoset composites, fiber braid reinforced thermoplastic composites have a shorter molding cycle, and thus its manufacturing cost is relatively low, and can be recycled for many times, so it is more and more used in automotive and other fields.


In addition to CF and GF, basalt fiber (BF) can also be used to reinforce PA. Some researchers have prepared PA6/BF composites with natural and environmentally friendly BF as the reinforcing material, in order to solve the problem of poor interfacial bonding between BF and resin matrix.


Inorganic particle filling modification


Inorganic particles are widely available, inexpensive, and can enhance certain properties of plastics, most of which are used for filler modification of plastics. However, most of the inorganic particles have poor compatibility with the resin matrix in plastics, and it is generally necessary to carry out surface modification, or add capacitance enhancers to improve the interfacial compatibility. Adding surface-treated inorganic particles to PA, or adding a bulking agent to the inorganic particle-filled PA system can significantly improve the mechanical properties of PA, which can be used in automotive manufacturing and other fields. In addition, inorganic particles can also be added to the fiber reinforced PA system to play a synergistic modification of inorganic particles and fibers.


Silica is added to PA6 to improve the mechanical properties of PA6, and this modification of silica helps to enhance the performance of PA products applied in the field of automotive parts.


Talc is utilized to modify PA6 materials for automotive applications to reduce material costs and enhance material properties. The processing properties of PA6 composites can be significantly improved and the tensile properties can be significantly enhanced, while the flexural and thermal properties of pure PA6 are maintained.


Incorporation of graphene nanosheets into PA610 can be used to enhance the mechanical and thermal properties of PA610 materials for automotive applications.


Foaming Modification


Lightweighting is one of the main directions of current automotive development. Using foaming technology to prepare PA-based microcellular foamed materials can not only obtain a better lightweight effect, but the existence of microcellular pores can also enable PA materials to obtain characteristics such as sound insulation and heat insulation, which enhances the potential of PA materials for use in automobiles.



Co-mingling modification


A researcher prepared a halogen-free flame-retardant reinforced PA66/PA6 alloy for high-voltage connectors in new energy vehicles, using a blended flame-retardant system of aluminum diethylphosphonite and aluminum phosphite, and a reinforcing system of GF. It was found that the effect of PA6 on the alloy’s flame-retardant properties was small, and that as the PA6 content in the alloy increased, the alloy’s strength and modulus decreased, and the notched impact strength increased. After aging at 85℃/85% relative humidity for 1000h, the water absorption of the alloy increased with the increase of PA6 content, and the electrical insulation properties under high temperature conditions gradually decreased with the increase of PA6 content in the alloy.


In addition, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) high gum powder was blended with PA6 to prepare PA6/ABS alloy materials with color for automotive use. In addition, the rate of color change of the material after thermo-oxidative aging was reduced by adding titanium dioxide. The prepared PA6/ABS gray alloy material has been successfully applied to automotive child seat accessories.


Heat-resistant modification


Four maleic anhydride copolymerized heat-resistant agents were synthesized, namely, poly(N-phenylmaleimide-alt-styrene) (PNS) containing rigid structure, PNS containing carboxylate group (PCS), PNS containing fluorine group (PFS), and poly(N-(4-carboxyphenyl)maleimide-alt-triallyl isocyanate) (PCT) containing cross-linkable structure, and the effects of the four heat-resistant agents on PA6/ABS were investigated. 4 heat-resistant agents on the heat-resistant properties of PA6. The results showed that the heat resistance of PCT-modified PA6 was the best, followed by PFS (10%)-modified PA6 (182.3°C), PCS (10%)-modified PA6 (164.8°C), and finally PNS (15%)-modified PA6 (138.5°C).


Research on modification technology of high temperature resistant PA for automotive use


Compared with conventional PA (PA66 and PA6, etc.), high-temperature-resistant PA can withstand higher temperatures, has better heat resistance, and is more suitable for the manufacture of automotive parts that require higher heat resistance. However, the melting point of high-temperature resistant PA is higher, the molding processability is poor, generally need to copolymerize with other monomers to obtain good processing performance.


Through the high temperature and high pressure solution polycondensation method, in the polymerization kettle for PA6T and PA66 mixed into salt, and then through the direct polycondensation of PA6T / 66 copolymer. It is characterized by excellent heat resistance and good processability and can be used for automotive connectors.


A semi-bio-based high-temperature resistant copolymer PA – poly(terephthalic acid-pentylenediamine)/adipic acid-pentylenediamine (PA5T/56) was prepared by high-temperature solution polymerization. This semi-bio-based high-temperature resistant copolymer PA has better thermal decomposition stability and carbon formation than PA6T/66, and its mechanical properties are comparable to those of PA6T/66, which can be used in high-temperature resistant automotive connectors. This semi-bio-based high-temperature copolymerized PA has better thermal decomposition stability and char formation than PA6T/66, and its mechanical properties are comparable to those of PA6T/66.


Through the first solution polymerization and then solid-phase polycondensation of hexylenediamine, copolymerization of diamine and dibutyl oxalate for polymerization, produced a high heat-resistant PA62 copolymer materials. This type of material has a wide range of application prospects in fields requiring high heat resistance such as automobile engine periphery.


In view of the excellent barrier properties, mechanical properties, heat resistance and low water absorption properties of polyhexanediyl m-toluene dimethylamine (PAMXD6), GF reinforced modified PAMXD6 is used, and at the same time, the antioxidant 1098 and the lubricant TAF101 are added to prepare a GF-reinforced PAMXD6 composite material, which is characterized by high strength, excellent dimensional stability, and excellent surface properties (no floating fibers), and so on.


Research on the application of modified PA in automobiles


Piping parts


Piping parts in the car occupies a very important position, and its types are many, including oil pipeline, coolant pipe, brake pipeline and so on. In addition to the requirement that the corresponding materials have good mechanical properties, automotive piping parts should also have excellent hydrolysis resistance, weather resistance, high temperature resistance and other characteristics.


PA is a commonly used material for automotive piping parts, but the amide bond density of PA with shorter carbon chain (such as PA6 and PA66) is larger, which is easy to absorb water and affects the strength and hydrolysis resistance of the material.


Controlling the water absorption of PA becomes an important factor in improving the performance of automotive PA tubes. In addition, the heat resistance of PP is relatively poor, which will adversely affect the high temperature resistance of PA. Special engineering plastics have better heat resistance, and some varieties also have lower water absorption, such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the combination of PPS and PA, you can get excellent heat resistance and hydrolysis resistance of the composite pipe, so as to be used in automotive coolant pipes.



Relative to short carbon chain PA (PA6, PA66), long carbon chain PA (PA12, PA612, PA11, PA1010, PA1012) has a lower amide bond density, has a lower water absorption rate, and has become the most commonly used PA material for piping parts. The processing method of long carbon chain PA pipe is mostly extrusion molding, and the molding process has a very important influence on the performance of long carbon chain PA pipe.



PA can be made into water pipes and applied to the water cooling system of new energy vehicles, and PA can also be used to make the barrier material for automobile air conditioning hoses.



Other Automobile Parts


In addition to piping parts, PA materials are increasingly used in automotive engine peripheral parts, including supercharged air coolers, intake manifolds, air intake heat shields, turbine duct resonators, hot-side turbine air ducts and other parts.


GF reinforced PA has excellent performance and can be applied to a variety of automotive components, such as through the inorganic mineral filling and GF reinforced composite modification technology, and then add toughening agents, antioxidants, lubricants and other components, after careful formulation, the resulting modified PA6 can be applied to automotive engine cover; GF reinforced PA6 has been applied in the new BMW 3 series to 7 series automotive steering column module, which can be reduced by 20% in mass; GF reinforced PA6 has been applied in the new BMW 3 series to 7 series automotive steering column module, which can be used to reduce the mass of the car. GF reinforced PA6 has been applied in the steering column module of the new BMW 3 to 7 series cars, which can reduce the mass by 20%; GF reinforced PA66 has good mechanical properties and low water absorption, which can be applied in the production of automotive connectors.


In addition, a variety of functionalized modified PA materials in automotive components are increasingly widespread, such as the use of high thermal conductivity PA materials produced by the radiator can be applied to automotive rear fog lamps, which compared to the traditional aluminum radiator, not only reduces the quality of the reduction of 30%, but also to meet the requirements of LED rear fog lamp heat dissipation and mechanical properties, the cost of production has also been reduced to achieve the automotive fog lamp radiator “Plastic instead of aluminum”.



By matching the appropriate viscosity of PA and different types of polyolefin-based graft elastomers, low-temperature-resistant and high-flow PA66 materials can be obtained, which can be applied to the manufacture of automotive tie-downs.PA can also be used in new energy vehicle powertrain suspension system, compared with the metal material suspension system, the quality of the mass is reduced by about 37% to 50%, the cost is reduced by about 10% to 28%, and the effect of vibration damping is relatively good.




Modification of PA can significantly improve its various properties and broaden the scope of application of PA in the automotive field, for this reason, researchers have developed a variety of modification techniques, including fiber reinforcement, inorganic particle filling, foam modification, copolymerization modification and so on.


In these modification techniques, there are some key factors that have a very important impact on the final modification effect, such as the design of the interface between the fiber and inorganic particles and PA in the enhancement and filling modification, the control of the morphology and size of the foam pores in the foaming modification, the selection of the monomer type and ratio in the copolymerization modification and the design of the synthesis process, etc., which requires in-depth study by researchers in order to master the influence of the key factors of the law, thus further enhancing the performance of various types of PA materials in automotive applications. This will further enhance the modification technology of various types of PA materials, so that modified PA can be better used in the automotive field.

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